CH 1010 General Chemistry- Chapter 4
CH 1010 General Chemistry- Chapter 4 General Chemistry 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jomary Arias on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 1010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider Mueller Chapter 4 Key Terms: Ionic Bond results from the complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to another, the formation of 2 charged particles (cations and anions) Ionic Solid cations & anions pack together in a regular way Electrostatic Potential Energy (E )elnergy a charged particle has because of its position relative to another charged particle Lattice Energy ( U) – energy released when 1 mole of an ionic compound forms from its free ions in the gas phase. As Radius of a Cation ↓ the lattice energy ↑ As the Radius of an Anion ↓ the lattice energy ↑ As the Charge of the Cation ↑ the lattice energy ↑ Polyatomic ion charged, covalently bonded groups of atoms Covalent Bond two atoms share 2 electrons Molecule a unit of matter that results when 2 or more atoms are joined by covalent bonds Bond length the optimum distance between nuclei, where net attractive forces are maximized and the molecule is stable (lowest energy formation) Nonpolar covalent bond : a bond characterized by an even distribution of charge; electrons in the bonds shared equally by the two atoms Polar covalent bond : bond resulting from an unequal distribution of bonding pairs of electrons between atoms, results in a partial charge on each of the atoms Electronegativity : relative measure of the ability of an atom in a bond to attract electrons to itself when bonded to another atom.( ↑ as you move UP a group)( ↑ as you move across a period or from left to right) Nonpolar Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic Compound Bonds between atoms Bonds between atoms whose Bonds between atoms whose electronegativity differ by less electro negativities differ by with the SAME or similar electronegativity than 2 units (0.4< ∆x 2.0) more than 2 units (∆x ≥ 2.0 ) (∆x 0.4) Chemical Formula: lists the symbols of the elements involved in a given compound; using subscripts to indicate the # of atoms of each element. Structural Formula : shows the bonds between atoms; tells us how the atoms are connected and gives more info than a chemical formula Molecular model: give a 3D representation of the molecule CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider Mueller Chapter 4 Octet Rule: Atoms of main group elements make bonds by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons to achieve a valence shell containing 8 electron, or four electron pairs, can be expanded. Lewis Structure: 2D representation of the bonds and lone pairs of valence electrons in an ionic or molecular compound Single bond: bond that results when 2 atoms share 1 pair of electrons Lone pair: a pair of electrons that is not shared Bonding pair: a pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms Resonance: characteristic of electron distributions when 2 or more equivalent Lewis structures can be drawn for one compound Resonance Structure: one of two or more Lewis structures with the same arrangement of atoms but different arrangements of bonding pairs of electrons. Only differ in placement of the valence shell electrons Connections b/w atoms remain the same Pairs of electrons that are spread out among atoms are said to be delocalized Resonance Stabilization : stability of a molecular structure due to delocalization of its electrons May occur in polyatomic ions Polyatomic Anions ADD the appropriate # of valence electrons Polyatomic Cations SUBTRACT the appropriate # of valence electrons Main Group Metals: Cations ( + ) Anion ( ) Group 1A elements form 1 + cation Group 6A elements form 2 anions (68 = 2) Group 2A elements forms 2 + cations Group 7A elements form 1 – anion (78 = 1) Group 3A elements form 3 + cation Group 8A elements DON’T form ions (88 = 0) Melting an Ionic Solid: Requires energy, ions begin to move with more freedom Cations and Anions separate Compound will change phases from solid liquid As lattice energy ↑ the melting point ↑ Ionic Bond Covalent Bond CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider Mueller Chapter 4 High melting solids Low melting solids, liquid, or Vast 3D network of ions gasses Opposite charges attract Strong, attracts forces between different molecules is weak Little energy required to overcome forces between molecules How to Draw ElectronDot Structure: 1. Determine the # of valance e 2. Arrange the symbols of the elements in a pattern that shows how their atoms are boned together & then connect them with single bonds. Place elements with large bonding capacity in the center and terminal atoms surrounding it. Electron Dot Structures: 1 line indicates single covalent bond (2 shared electrons) 2 lines indicate double bond ( 4 shared electrons) 3 lines indicate triple bond ( 6 shared electrons) (Multiple bonds are shorter & stronger than single bonds because more shared electrons are holding them together) Ex) Cl 2,ingle bond Each atom in Cl mo2 cule gains a noblegas configuration with 8 valence electrons, so it obeys the octet rule
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