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CH 1010 General Chemistry- Chapter 4

by: Jomary Arias

CH 1010 General Chemistry- Chapter 4 General Chemistry 1010

Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry > General Chemistry 1010 > CH 1010 General Chemistry Chapter 4
Jomary Arias
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These notes cover Chapter 4 material regarding Ionic and Covalent bonding, Electron-Dot structure, and Resonance.
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jomary Arias on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to General Chemistry 1010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Ava Kreider-Mueller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider­ Mueller Chapter 4 Key Terms:  Ionic Bond­ results from the complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to  another, the formation of 2 charged particles (cations and anions)  Ionic Solid­ cations & anions pack together in a regular way  Electrostatic Potential Energy (E )­elnergy a charged particle has because of its  position relative to another charged particle     Lattice Energy ( U)  – energy released when 1 mole of an ionic compound forms from its free ions in the gas phase. ­As Radius of a Cation ↓ the lattice energy ↑ ­As the Radius of an Anion ↓ the lattice energy ↑ ­As the Charge of the Cation ↑ the lattice energy ↑     Polyatomic ion ­  charged, covalently bonded groups of atoms      Covalent Bond­ two atoms share 2 electrons   Molecule ­ a unit of matter that results when 2 or more atoms are joined by covalent  bonds    Bond length ­ the optimum distance between nuclei, where net attractive forces are  maximized and the molecule is stable (lowest energy formation)   Nonpolar covalent bond  : a bond characterized by an even distribution of charge;  electrons in the bonds shared equally by the two atoms   Polar covalent bond  : bond resulting from an unequal distribution of bonding pairs of  electrons between atoms, results in a partial charge on each of the atoms   Electronegativity : relative measure of the ability of an atom in a bond to attract electrons to itself when bonded to another atom.( ↑ as you move UP a group)( ↑ as you move  across a period or from left to right) Nonpolar Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic Compound Bonds between atoms  Bonds between atoms whose  Bonds between atoms whose  electronegativity differ by less electro negativities differ by  with the SAME or  similar electronegativity than 2 units (0.4< ∆x  2.0) more than 2 units (∆x ≥ 2.0 ) (∆x  0.4)   Chemical Formula: lists the symbols of the elements involved in a given compound;  using subscripts to indicate the # of atoms of each element.   Structural Formula  : shows the bonds between atoms; tells us how the atoms are  connected and gives more info than a chemical formula  Molecular model: give a 3D representation of the molecule CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider­ Mueller Chapter 4  Octet Rule: Atoms of main group elements make bonds by gaining, losing, or sharing  electrons to achieve a valence shell containing 8 electron, or four electron pairs, can be  expanded.  Lewis Structure: 2D representation of the bonds and lone pairs of valence electrons in  an ionic or molecular compound  Single bond: bond that results when 2 atoms share 1 pair of electrons  Lone pair: a pair of electrons that is not shared  Bonding pair: a pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms  Resonance: characteristic of electron distributions when 2 or more equivalent Lewis  structures can be drawn for one compound  Resonance Structure: one of two or more Lewis structures with the same arrangement  of atoms but different arrangements of bonding pairs of electrons.  ­ Only differ in placement of the valence shell electrons ­ Connections b/w atoms remain the same ­ Pairs of electrons that are spread out among atoms are said to be delocalized    Resonance Stabilization : stability of a molecular structure due to delocalization of its  electrons ­ May occur in polyatomic ions ­ Polyatomic Anions ADD the appropriate # of valence electrons ­ Polyatomic Cations SUBTRACT the appropriate # of valence electrons  Main Group Metals: Cations ( + ) Anion ( ­) Group 1A elements form 1 + cation Group 6A elements form 2­ anions (6­8 = ­2) Group 2A elements forms 2 + cations Group 7A elements form 1 – anion (7­8 = ­1) Group 3A elements form 3 + cation Group 8A elements DON’T form ions (8­8 =  0) Melting an Ionic Solid: ­ Requires energy, ions begin to move with more freedom ­ Cations and Anions separate ­ Compound will change phases from solid  liquid ­ As lattice energy ↑ the melting point ↑ Ionic Bond Covalent Bond CH 1010 General Chemistry Dr. Ava Kreider­ Mueller Chapter 4 ­ High melting solids ­ Low melting solids, liquid, or  ­ Vast 3D network of ions gasses ­ Opposite charges attract ­ Strong, attracts forces between  different molecules is weak ­ Little energy required to overcome  forces between molecules How to Draw Electron­Dot Structure: 1. Determine the # of valance e ­ 2. Arrange the symbols of the elements in a pattern that shows how their atoms are  boned together & then connect them with single bonds. Place elements with large  bonding capacity in the center and terminal atoms surrounding it. Electron Dot Structures: ­ 1 line indicates  single covalent bond (2 shared electrons) ­ 2 lines indicate double bond ( 4 shared electrons) ­ 3 lines indicate  triple bond ( 6 shared electrons) (Multiple bonds are shorter & stronger than single bonds because more shared electrons are  holding them together) Ex) Cl 2,ingle bond Each atom in Cl mo2 cule gains a noble­gas configuration with 8 valence electrons, so it obeys  the octet rule 


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