CHEM-C127 Milk Separation Lab Notes
CHEM-C127 Milk Separation Lab Notes Chemistry C127
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Brinser on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry C127 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Norman Dean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 645 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry and Biochem I Lab in Chemistry at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
C127 Lecture 7 Notes- Milk Separation 2-25-16 Exam questions relatively evenly split between 4 experiment o Any kind of calculator o Lab notebook o 3x5 note card allowed o Sunday 7:15 Q/A review FIRST FORMAL LAB REPORT Learning Goals o Perform natural product separation o Identify major components of milk o Assign polar/nonpolar properties to a component based on separation scheme o Utilize qualitative analytical tests- chemical tests, ie. color change, precipitate that indicates a particular component is present Safety and Waste Disposal o Review safety agreement, especially sections on chemical spills, protective clothing, and injuries o Follow instructions for disposal of various materials o Since a volatile organic solvent will be used (ethyl acetate), no open flames should be used, work in fume hood Keep boiling beakers from boiling over Components of Milk o Proteins (casein- precipitates, whey protein) o Fats o Carbohydrates (lactose- type of sugar) o Minerals (calcium, phosphate) o Vitamins (fat soluble- behave like nonpolar molecules, water soluble- behave like polar) Separation diagram o (1) Add acid and heat (gently); filter o (2) Extract with ethyl acetate Casein precipitates; behaves like micelle- outside somewhat hydrophilic, inside hydrophobic When acid added to casein, it gains a proton and reacts less with water; loses its hydrophilic outside and becomes neutral o As more casein molecules get protonated, they clump together o Gets big enough that it can’t stay soluble, precipitates Components of milk that are insoluble in water move inside casein protein Fats get precipitated with casein by ethyl acetate Any fat soluble vitamins end up with fats/ethyl acetate; use qualitative tests to detect their presence o (3) Heat vigorously; filter ???????? +2 and ????????43 present in solution with lactose, along with water-soluble vitamins Protein Structure o Casein- globular protein found as a colloid (molecules wrap in ball-like structure) o Whey proteins- water-soluble, smaller in mass o Amino acids make up proteins Amino acid condensation- forms water − + Two amino acids react, one loses ???????? , one loses ???? , water forms Peptide bond forms between remaining parts of amino acids to make protein or part of one Proteins are long polypeptides o Proteins can have sheet-like (primary) or helix (secondary) shapes, among others Interaction of primary/secondary structures lead to tertiary or quaternary structures Often keep reacting and becoming more complex o Fibrous and globular proteins Lactose o Type of complex carbohydrate o Organic molecule, water-soluble Almost every part has ????????s and ????s- gives the name carbohydrates o Made up of 2 simpler sugars o Galactose + glucose = lactose Enzyme lactase used to separate lactose into these Will use glucose test strip to prove presence of glucose Qualitative Tests o Fehling’s Test- carbohydrate forms brick-red precipitate Lactose tested for by testing for glucose after decomposition o Calcium test- treat with ammonium oxalate, white precipitate o Phosphate test- nitric acid and ammonium molybdate, forms precipitate o Biuret Test- ????????????????, ????????????????4give purple-pink color
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