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Cardiovascular system

by: Kimberly Notetaker

Cardiovascular system BIO 162-02

Marketplace > La Salle University > BIO 162-02 > Cardiovascular system
Kimberly Notetaker
La Salle
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Small Overview of the Cardiovascular System and how it may effect the elderly
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Ballough
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 162-02 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Ballough in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
Cardiovascular System I. Anatomy Involved A. Heart 1. Made mostly of thick muscle, and is about the size of a man’s fist and weighs about 12 ounces 2. It is divided into four chambers which are separated by small valves that act like swinging doors to keep blood flowing in one direction a. Upper Chambers - Right and Left Atria: receive incoming blood b. Lower Chambers - Right and Left Ventricles: (more muscular) pump blood out of your heart B. Blood Vessels 1. Arteries a. Carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body b. The largest artery is the aorta (located at the heart) - Has strong elastic walls that will not tear under the high pressure of the blood as it is pumped from the heart c. As arteries get further from the heart, they become smaller in diameter 2. Veins a. Carry blood back to the heart b. Are thinner than arteries because they carry blood under less pressure c. As veins get closer to the heart they get smaller in diameter 3. Capillaries a. Tiny blood vessels b. Connect the arteries to the veins c. These are so small that red blood cells have to squeeze through tem in single file C. Blood 1. Made up of cells and plasma (fluid that carries the cells) a. Red Blood Cells: carry oxygen b. White Blood Cells: fight infection c. Blood Platelets: help the blood clot II. Normal Functions of the Cardiovascular System A. Blood circulates through a network of vessels throughout the body to provide individual cells with oxygen and nutrients and helps dispose of metabolic wastes the heart pumps the blood around the blood vessels 1. Function of blood and circulation: a. Circulates oxygen and removes carbon dioxide b. Provides cells with nutrients c. Removes the waste products of metabolism to the excretory organs for disposal d. Protects the body against disease and infection e. Clotting stops bleeding after injury f. Transports hormones to target cells and organs g. Help regulate body temperature B. Functions also Include: 1. Transportation a. Blood goes out by the arteries to the body and the veins carry blood back to the heart b. This could be thought of as a roadway. 2. Protection 3. Thermoregulation a. The cardiovascular system regulates the temperature of: - Sweat Glands - Muscle around arterioles - Skeletal Muscle - Endocrine glands 4. Fluid Balance III. Aspects of Aging within the Cardiovascular System A. As a person grows older the veins and arteries lose some of their elasticity 1. When the walls of the arteries do not expand as easily, it becomes harder for blood to flow through them, and the person’s blood pressure may increase 2. Decreased elasticity in the veins slows down the return of blood to the heart B. Angina 1. Chest pain that occurs because the heart is not getting enough oxygen C. Chronic Heart Failure 1. The heart muscle is weak and cannot pump effectively 2. May cause fluids to build up in the body D. Pacemakers 1. Nearly 80% of people who receive a pacemaker each year are over the age of 65 2. Pacemakers are recommended if abnormal heart beats have begun to interfere with daily activities 3. When placing a pacemaker, is usually does not require open heart surgery 4. The elderly are often at particular risk for bleeding and infection IV. Care Plans A. Angina Care Plan 1. May include: a. Have the resident take nitroglycerin - Pill form that is placed under the tongue - Patch form that is applied to the skin b. Knowing that the resident may be fearful to engage in activity if it may make a angina attack occur c. Encourage the patient to be as independent to the best of their ability: - Have them move at their own pace - If the resident does feel chest pain while doing activities, encourage them to rest and to breath deeply to help relieve the pain. B. Chronic Heart Failure Care Plan 1. Provide rest times when helping the resident with their daily activities 2. Help maintain a position that helps the residents breath comfortably 3. Provide regular mouth care 4. Have frequent occasions where the resident is able to use the toilet 5. Measure a residents input/output and weight everyday 6. Be aware of fluid restrictions 7. Make sure a resident is calm to reduce strain on the heart C. Pacemaker Patient Care Plan 1. Position resident to that they are comfortable 2. Assist with ROM exercises daily after pacemaker is inserted 3. Monitor pacemaker functioning with the cardiac monitoring Works Cited "The Cardiovascular System (Heart and Blood) | Medical Terminology for Cancer." The Cardiovascular System (Heart and Blood) | Medical Terminology for Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. "Chambers and Valves of the Heart." - Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. "Healthcare-Online." Functions of the Cardiovascular System. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2016. Providers. Future Health Care, Home Care, Provide Appropriate Teaching For The Client And Family About:, and • Placement Of The Pacemaker Generator And Leads In Relation To. NURSING CARE (n.d.): n. pag. Web. "Risks of Pacemaker Surgery for an Elderly Person." LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 09 June 2015. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.


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