2444 Sports History
2444 Sports History 2444
Popular in History of Sports in Western History
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Melton on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2444 at East Carolina University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of Sports in Western History in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
National Past time Ban Johnson and the American League Since the National League became the only league the average salary declined to $2,400 in 1901 Ban Johnson established the American League in 1899, he was a former newspaper editor and sports writer in 1901 Johnson declared war by offering National League players from all over $500 over their current salary, he gained over 100 players by 1902 the American League was larger than the National League in 1903 these two leagues made an agreement to make peace with each other, they established a 3 man national commotion to oversee games Ban Johnson was known as the Czar as organized baseball for the next 2 decades Johnson made baseball a stable and profitable business Modern steel and concrete stadiums were built to host many fans In October of 1903 the first Worlds Series started between the Boston team and the Pittsburg Pirates Ty Cobb and the “Dead Ball Era” Played for Detroit tigers from 1925-1928 Ty was hatted because he was mean, racist, and violent but was the greatest player of his age, it was believed that his violent nature came from his mother killing Ty’s father at the age of 18 Balls weren’t wound as tightly as they are today, they lasted for many games even until they were lost or unusable known as the “Dead Ball Era” Scoring relied on small ball, getting on base, and place hitting Ty was the example of the “Dead Ball Era”, he had many different high scores that took years for players to surpass his scores The Federal League In the 1910s the Federal League challenge and the Black Sox scandal affected the Baseball business The reserve cost was still in play, players welcomed the Federal League which had 8 teams Players salary rose because of the Federal League but attendance dropped from fans The National League bought out 4 teams in the Federal League The Baltimore Club Case: Federal Baseball Club vs. National League went to the supreme court and ruled that organized baseball didn’t violate the federal anti-trust law The supreme court ruled that Baseball was not a conventional industry but was a convention of entertainment Chicago “Black Sox” Scandal Rumors that Howe Chase (Star first basemen) bribed players to throw games It was said that the 1917 game was thrown because of a bribe Team owners did not want to tell fans because they believed that the fans would not want to watch their games Joe Jackson and Eddie Cicotte admitted to throwing the games, said that he was upset about the low salary and testified that by picking out which game to lose and which would win it wouldn’t raise suspicion The grand jury in November of 1920 charged 3 gamblers, Cicotte, Jackson, and 6 of the white sox teammates. These 8 players were known as the Black Sox The grand jury did not charge the center of the conspiracy, Arnold Rothstein In 1921, The district attorney discovered that the testimony was stolen, Cicotte and Jackson took back their first testimony. In the summer of 1921 the trial was held again and key witnesses caught amnesia or moved to Canada. Team owners elected Kenesaw Mountain Landis in 1920 as the new commissioner because they were shocked that gambling infiltrated Baseball The owners abandoned the 3 man national commission that operated major league baseball since 1903 Landis ruled with an “iron fist” during his time, The day after the Chicago 8 were acquitted he announced that they were banned from Baseball forever Landis didn’t always act in the best way, he picked and choose who to punish and who to not punish Baseball was racially segregated because of Landis Babe Ruth and Baseballs “Golden Age” In the 1925 Luke Erick played 2,130 consecutive games for the New Your Yankees George Herman Ruth: the greatest baseball player of all time, promising youngest pitcher for the Boston Red Sox Led Boston to World Series Championship in 1916 and 1918 Ruth gathered 94 wins against 46 loses with an earned run average of 2.28 in his lifetime In 1918 Ruth led the American National League for the Red Sox with 11 home runs and 1919 with 29 home runs After the 1919 season Boston Red Sox owner, Harry Frazee (also a unsuccessful Broadway producer) sold his top players to the New York Yankees Harry Frazee sold 12 more players throughout the years to the New York Yankees In 2004 the curse of the Bambino was finally broken Babe Ruth embodied the “Live Ball Era” through the 1920s and 1930s Ruths first year with the Yankees he set high home run records In 1961 Babe had a bad year until Roger Marris hit 61 home runs Ruth was a heavy set man who had a big appetite and businesses set Ruth as their own walking billboard In 1930 Babe’s salary peeked to $80,000 a year Ruth was the first sports star to be represented by a press agent, Christie Walsh by publicizing Ruth at orphanages Christie helped Ruth’s image throughout many businesses and he earned many profits off of his advertisements In 1935 Ruth retired