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Kinesiology Muscles

by: Maria D'Angelo

Kinesiology Muscles MOV 300

Maria D'Angelo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Dr. Krisanne Chapin
Class Notes
Kinesiology, MOV 300, Chapin
25 ?




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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria D'Angelo on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MOV 300 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Krisanne Chapin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Cinema And Media Studies at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Skeletal  Muscles Responsible  for  movement  of  body  and  all  of   its  joints  –  ac▯ve  force  genera▯on     •  Protec▯on  &  dynamic  stability  of  joints   •  Posture  &  support     •  Produce  a  major  por▯on  of  total  body  heat   Skeletal  Muscles 600+  skeletal  muscles  =  ~40  to  50%  of  body  weight       215  pairs  of  skeletal  muscles     work  in  coopera▯on  with  each  other  to  perform  opposite   ac▯ons  at  the  same  joint     Aggregate  muscle  ac▯on     muscles  work  in  groups  rather  than  independently  to   achieve  a  given  joint  mo▯on   Shape  of  Muscles  &  Fiber   Arrangement Parallel  muscles   fibers  arranged  parallel  to  length  of  muscle     produce  a  greater  range  of  movement  than  similar  sized   muscles  with  pennate  arrangement     Flat,  fusiform,  strap,  and  radiate   Fiber  Arrangement  -­‐  Parallel Flat  muscles   Usually  thin  &  broad,  origina▯ng  from  broad,   fibrous,  sheet-­‐like  aponeuroses  (a▯achment  to   bone)   Muscle  forces  spread  over  a  broad  area     Fusiform  muscles   Spindle-­‐shaped  with  a  central  belly  that  tapers  to   tendons  on  each  end   Allows  them  to  focus  their  power  onto  small,  bony   targets   Fiber  Arrangement  -­‐  Parallel Strap  muscles     More  uniform,  essen▯ally  all  fibers  arranged  in  a   long  parallel  manner   Enables  a  focusing  of  power  onto  small,  bony   targets     Radiate  muscles   Also  called:  triangular,  fan-­‐shaped  or  convergent     Have  combined  arrangement  of  flat  &  fusiform   Fiber  Arrangement  -­‐  Pennate Pennate  muscles   Shorter  fibers  arranged  obliquely  to  their  tendons     Arrangement  increases  the  cross  sec▯onal  area  of   the  muscle,  thereby  increasing  the  power   Fiber  Arrangement  -­‐  Pennate Unipennate  muscles   Fibers  run  obliquely  from  a  tendon  on  one  side     Bipennate  muscle   Fibers  run  obliquely  on  both  sides  from  a  central   tendon     Mul▯pennate  muscles   diagonally  between  them  h  fibers  running   Muscle  T erminology Origin-­‐  most  proximal   and  medial   a▯achment  point,   moves  the  least     Inser▯on-­‐  more  distal,   moves  the  most     Ac▯on-­‐  ex.  Flexion/ extension  etc..     Muscle  T erminology:     Types  of  Contrac▯ons Isometric-­‐  equal         Isotonic  –  ac▯ve  muscle  force/  tension  to   either  cause  or  control  joint  movement      • Concentric  –  posi▯ve  contrac▯on,  going  against  gravity   • Eccentric-­‐  lengthening  contrac▯on  (muscle  ge▯ng   longer),  going  with  gravity,  nega▯ve  contrac▯on   Muscle  T erminology:     Roles  of  Muscles Agonist-­‐  does  the  mo▯on,  prime  mover       Antagonist-­‐  opposing,  some▯mes  relaxed       Stabilizer -­‐  maintaining  posi▯on,  ac▯ve       Neutralizer-­‐  keep  neutral  posi▯on     Role  of  Muscles Force  Couples     Two  or  more  forces  pulling  in  different  direc▯ons   on  an  object,  causing  the  object  to  rotate  about   its  axis     Coupling  of  muscular  forces  together  in  the  body   can  result  in  a  more  efficient  movement     Types  of  contrac▯on Keep  in  mind….   Movement  may  occur  at  any  given  joint  without  any   muscle  contrac▯on  whatsoever     • referred  to  as  passive  and  due  to  external  forces     •  applied  by  another  person,  object,  or  resistance     •  or  the  force  of  gravity  in  the  presence  of  muscle  relaxa▯on   Determina▯on     of  Muscle  Ac▯on Palpa▯on-­‐  using  hands     Electromyography-­‐  electrical  ac▯vity  in  muscles   (using  electrodes)     Electrical  s▯mula▯on-­‐  provide  external   s▯mula▯on  to  see  contrac▯on     Anatomical  lines  of  pull   Determina▯on  of  ac▯on:     Lines  of  Pull Loca▯ons  of  origin  and   inser▯on     Planes  of  mo▯on  through   which    joint  can  move     Muscle’s  rela▯onship   rela▯ve  to  the  joint’s  axes   of  rota▯on   Force  Produc▯on Factors:   Fiber  type   Size  of  the  motor  unit   Size  of  the  neural  signal   Increases  the  number  of  motor  units  recruited  AND  their  firing  rate   Fiber  Type Type  I  –  Slow  twitch  (ST).  Resist  fa▯gue  ,  but  less   force.  (good  for  endurance)   More  sensi▯ve  to  ac▯va▯on  s▯muli   Recruited  first,  low  threshold  for  neural  signal     Type  II  (a  &  b)  –  Fast  twitch  (FT).  Greater  shortening   velocity,  so  greater  force.  Fa▯gue  quickly.  (sprinter)   Greater  s▯mulus  required  to  ac▯vate,  less  sensi▯ve   threshold  later,  when  neural  signal  exceeds  higher   Motor  Unit-­‐  motor  unit  and  the  fibers  it   innovates  (either  slow  or  fast  not  both) Motor  Unit Func▯on  as  a  single  unit  –  this  is  the      All  or  none  principle     motor  unit  will  either  fire  and  contract  maximally,  or  not  at  all   Motor  Unit The  number  of  motor  units   responding  will  depend…   Less  than  10  in  muscles  requiring   precise  and  detailed  control   A  few  thousand  in  large  muscles   that  perform  less  complex  ac▯vi▯es     Eyes-­‐  few  motor  units  for  precision     Running  or  jumping-­‐  a  lot  of  motor   units  for  force   Force  Produc▯on To  increase  force  produc▯on     ac▯va▯ng  those  motor  units  containing  a  greater  number   of  muscle  fibers       ac▯va▯ng  more  motor  units     increasing  the  frequency  of  motor  unit  ac▯va▯on   Motor  Unit  Ac▯va▯on s▯mulus  (ACTION  POTENTIAL)  is  applied  trical     Motor  Unit  Ac▯va▯on Motor  Unit  Ac▯va▯on Greater  contrac▯on  forces  may  also  be  achieved  by   increasing  the  frequency  of  motor  unit  ac▯va▯on     Length-­‐T ension  Rela▯onship Maximal  ability  of  a   muscle  to  develop   tension/force  varies   depending  upon  the   length  of     the  muscle  during   contrac▯on     Extensibility-­‐   muscles  beyond   res▯ng  length     Elas▯city-­‐  tension   due  to    muscle   wan▯ng  to  go  back   to  res▯ng  length     Length-­‐T ension At  50-­‐  60  %  of  res▯ng  length  ability  to  develop   contrac▯le  tension  is  essen▯ally  reduced  to  zero     Greatest  amount  of  ac▯ve  tension  when  a  muscle   is  stretched  between   100-­‐  130%   of  its  res▯ng   length     Stretch  beyond  100%  to  130%  of  res▯ng  length   significantly  decreases  the  amount  of  force   muscle  can  exert   Length-­‐T ension Not  as  much  ver▯calMost  ver▯cal  heigNot  as  much  ver▯cal  height   Length-­‐T ension   More  weight  max  bc  slack  at  knee   Force  –  Velocity  Rela▯onship Force-­‐Velocity  Rela▯onship Concentric  –  Inverse  rela▯onship   • As  force  needed  to  cause  movement  of  an  object   increases  the  velocity  of  concentric  contrac▯on  decreases   • Force  goes  up  leads  to  contrac▯on  speed  goes  down     Eccentric  –  propor▯onal  rela▯onship   • As  force  needed  to  control  an  object’s  movement   increases,  the  velocity  of  eccentric  lengthening  increases,   at  least  un▯l  control  is  lost     • Force  up  leads  to  lengthening  speed  up   Stretch-­‐shortening  Cycle Sequencing  &  ▯ming  of  contrac▯ons  can  enhance  the   total  amount  of  force  produced     An  eccentric   stretch  on  the  muscle  prior  to  the   desired  concentric  contrac▯on       • Elas▯c  energy  is  stored,  muscle  spindle  ac▯vated   HOWEVER,  to  get  the  benefit,  the  transi▯on  between   eccentric  and  concentric  must  be  immediate       Uniar▯cular  muscles Cross  &  act  directly  only  on  the   joint  that  they  cross      one  joint     Ex.  Brachialis   Can  only  pull  humerus  &  ulna   closer  together   Biar▯cular  muscles Cross  and  act  on  two  different  joints   Depending,  biar▯cular  muscles  may   contract  and  cause  mo▯on  at  either   one  or  both  of  its  joints     Advantage   Are  able  to  maintain  a  rela▯vely   constant  length   Biar▯cular  muscles Example:  Squat     If  only  knee  extension  occurs:     rectus  femoris  shortens  &  decreases   in  its  ability  to  exert  force     With  hip  extension:     rela▯ve  length  &  force  produc▯on     the  hip  joint  during  extension     Biar▯cular  muscles Ex.  2  Hip  &  knee  biar▯cular  muscles   Countercurrent  movement  pa▯ern  occurs  in  kicking   During  the  lower  extremity  forward  movement  phase   the  rectus  femoris  concentrically  contracts  to  flex  the  hip   &  extend  the  knee     These  two  movements,  when  combined,  increase  the   tension  or  stretch  on  the  hamstring  muscles  both  at  the   knee  &  hip   Mul▯ar▯cular  muscles Mul▯ar▯cular  muscles  act  on  three  or  more  joints  due  to  the   line  of  pull  between  their  origin  &  inser▯on  crossing  mul▯ple   joints     Principles  rela▯ve  to  biar▯cular  muscles  apply  similarly  to   mul▯ar▯cular  muscles     Ac▯ve  &  Passive  Insufficiency Ac▯ve  insufficiency     can  not  generate  or  maintain  ac▯ve  tension  int  that  it     Passive  insufficiency   when  the  opposing  muscle  becomes  stretched  to  the   point  where  it  can  no  longer  lengthen  &  allow  movement   Ac▯ve  Insufficiency When  full  range  of  mo▯on  is   a▯empted  in  all  joints   cross    by  the  muscle   Passive  Insufficiency Hamstrings  can  not  usually  stretch  enough  to  allow   both   maximal  hip  flexion  &  maximal  knee  extension     Virtually  impossible  to  ac▯vely  extend  the  knee  fully   when  beginning  with  the  hip  fully  flexed  or  vice  versa     Unit  2  TUESDAY Bones   Composi▯on  and  anatomy   Strength-­‐  calcium  carbonate  calcium   phosphate  and  water   Flexibility-­‐  collagen   Muscles   Growth  &  development   Tissue  proper▯es   Wolff’s  Law-­‐  bones  grow  according  to  the   Types  of  contrac▯ons   forces  applied  to  it   Muscle  ac▯ons  and  roles  of  muscle   Reciprocal  Inhibi▯on   Loading  tolerance,  stress-­‐strain  curve   Osteoporosis,  female  athlete  triad-­‐   Motor  Units:  All  or  None  Principle   osteoporosis,  ea▯ng  disorder,  amenorrhea   Factors  affec▯ng  force  produc▯on   Joints   Length-­‐Tension  Rela▯onship   Force-­‐Velocity   Sta▯c  stability-­‐  ligaments,  car▯lage,  fascia,   bone   Stretch-­‐Shortening  Cycle   Classifica▯on/types   Ac▯ve  &  Passive  insufficiency   Mo▯ons  allowed  at  synovial/diarthrodial     Factors  affec▯ng  joint  stability   Eccentric-­‐  being  controlled   So▯  ▯ssue  structures   Concentric-­‐  controlling   Improving  mobility  –  stretching    GTOs  and  MS    PNF  –  Propriocep▯ve  Neuromuscular    Facilita▯on  


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