New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Chemistry II Ch 14

by: Juliet Villegas

General Chemistry II Ch 14 AS.030.102

Marketplace > Johns Hopkins University > Chemistry > AS.030.102 > General Chemistry II Ch 14
Juliet Villegas
Introductory Chemistry II
Sunita Thyagarajan

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All of Chapter 14 for General Chemistry II, preparing for first Exam. All about Electrochemistry.
Introductory Chemistry II
Sunita Thyagarajan
Class Notes
Electrochemistry, General Chemistry II, Ch 14
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Chemistry II

Popular in Chemistry

This page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliet Villegas on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AS.030.102 at Johns Hopkins University taught by Sunita Thyagarajan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry II in Chemistry at Johns Hopkins University.


Reviews for General Chemistry II Ch 14


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/22/16
Chemistry Exam I Oxidation Loss of electrons by a species increase oxidation 0 Reduction Gain of electrons by a species decrease oxidation Oxidizing Agent electron acceptor species is reduced 0 Reducing agent electron donor species is oxidized Balancing Redox Reactions 1 Write out all oxidation numbers to see what s being oxidized reduced 2 Write out half reactions 3 Balance Oxygens by adding H20 and balance Hydrogens by adding H 4 For acidic solutions Balance net charges by adding electrons 5 Multiply equations so electrons cancel out 6 Add two half reactions 7 Add OH to make water and cancel out H 8 Cancel out what you can Especially water molecules 0 Types of Redox reactions 0 Direct No external circuit no useful electric current 0 Indirect External circuit useful current external wire used Electrochemical cells Apparatus that allows a redox reaction to occur by transferring electrons through an external connector circuit 0 Galvanicvoltaic cell Produces electrical energy Chemical change produces electric current Deltaernlt0 Product favored reaction Ex Batteries 0 Electrolytic cell Requires electrical energy Electrical current used to cause chemical change in a non spontaneous reaction Deltaerngt0 Reactant favored reaction Ex Goldsilver plate jewelry Galvanic cell parts 0 Anode on left Oxidation occurs at this electrode Zns gt Zn2aq2e Positive charge builds up 0 Cathode on right Reduction occurs at this electrode Cu2 aq2e gt Cus Negative charge builds up 0 Electrons ow in the wire from anode to cathode o Ammeter measures current between wires 0 Electrolytic cell Increase the electrostatic potential energy of electrons in the cathode to make it ow towards the anode so anode becomes cathode and vice versa 0 Energetics Faraday expressed quantitative relationship between amounts reacted and totally electrical charge passing through the cell Faraday s Laws of electrolysis 1 The mass of a given produced or consumed at an electrode is proportional to quantity of electrical charge passed through cell 2 Equivalent masses of different substances are produced or consumed at an electrode by passing of a given quantity of electric charge Charge on single electron e 160217646 X 1019 C Multiply by Avogadro s for Faraday s Faraday constant F 9648534 C mol1 Electric current I units amperesamount of charge Q coulombs owing through circuit per unit time Qt Moles of electrons lt96485 C mol1 Change in energy Delta energy QV Qcharge Vvoltage Q 1C 1602x1019 C V 1 volt DeltaEnergy 1 1 eV 1 eV 1602 x 1019 0 The Gibb s Free Energy and Cell Voltage 0 O O O 0 Work welec QDeltaE ltDeltaE DeltaE positive for galvanic cell At constant TampP weecmax DeltaG DeltaG welec QDeltaE nFDeltaE reversibleqwelecTdeltaS QrevTdeltaS Electrical work produced only if DeltaGlt0 DeltaEgtO Standard State 0 DeltaGquotonFDeltaEquoto DeltaEquoto is cell voltage potential difference of galvanic cell in which reactants and products are in their standard states 0 Cell Potential 0 O OO Electrons move from anode to cathode by electromotive force emf which is change in potential Anode negative electrode is the supplier of electrons Cathode positive electrode is the acceptor of electrons Anode standard is ipped and becomes negative for cell potential Cell potential is cathodeanode Best oxidizing agents have higher reduction potential Best reducing agents have low reduction potential Lower reduction potentials can reduce those with higher ones but not vice versa MAKE SURE THINGS ARE BALANCED Computing cell voltage from free energy change O 0000 To get halfcell voltage using half potentials molcathode Vmolanode Vmol product Mol is electrons transferred Reduction potential diagrams single substance gets oxidized and reduced Occurs if reduction on right is larger than on left Reduction potential diagram Concentration and Nernst Equation 0 nFEcelnFEquotocellRTan o EcellEquotocell00592VnlogloQ at 25 degrees Celsius Electrolyte PH Equilibrium Constants o DeltaGquotoRTnK o annFRTDeltaEquoto lon Selective Probes respond to presence of speci c ion 0 Most common is pH probe sensitive to H ions Galvanic cells arranged in series form a battery of cells 0 Primary cells discarded when electrical energy discharged 0 Secondary cells can be recharged 0 Dry cell Disadvantage Concentrations change w time and voltage falls with use Replace NH4C with KOH 0 Alkaline dry cell Dissolved species doesn t appear in overall reaction so steadier voltage 0 Rechargeable batteries Can undergo many cycles of chargedischarge and energykg low for leadacid battery 0 Corrosion factors oxygen water salt electrolyte and acidity o quotCrabpotquot prevents corrosion with sacri cial anode like Zn Al and Mg they get consumed instead because oxidize more easily 0 Paint inhibits but can chip 0 Passivation is a protective oxide layer stainless steel o Electrometallurgy Most metals occur naturally as oxide Can react oxides with coke to reduce metal Electrolytic reduction works when smelting doesn t


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.