PSY202, Week 8
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Stereotypes Are Based on Automatic Categorization Attitudes and beliefs about groups are prejudice Emotional component: also prejudice Cognitive component: stereotypes Behavioral component: discrimination Stereotyping is a cognitive process, not an emotional one. Cognitive schemas that help us organize information about people on the basis of their membership in certain groups Stereotyping does not necessarily lead to intentional acts of abuse Often stereotyping is merely a technique we use to simplify how we look at the world – and we all do it to some extent. Stereotype: a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members. Your Name Matters in 2006, researchers sent 1,100 identically worded email inquiries to Los Angeles-area landlords. The inquiries were signed randomly, with an equal number signed Patrick McDougall received positive or encouraging replies from 89% of landlords Tyrell Jackson only 56% responded positively Said Al-Rahman encouraged by 66% of landlords. Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice: Negative stereotypes of groups lead to: prejudice aﬀective or attitudinal responses associated with stereotypes, usually involving negative judgments about people on the basis of their group membership. discrimination unjustiﬁed and inappropriate treatment of people as a result of prejudice In-group/out-group bias: Some people are more likely to develop associations between aversive events and members of an out- group those people appear to be more likely to be racially biased The formation of in-group and out-group distinctions appear to occur early in life. Outgrip homogeneity eﬀect In-group favoritism Women are quicker than men to form in-group bias, perhaps as a result of evolution The killing of Amadou Diallo by New York City police oﬃcers is used as an example of how implicit biases may impact behavior and how extensive training can reduce this implicit bias. Inhibiting stereotypes research suggests that negative stereotypes can be countered through learning and self-regulation Cooperation Can Reduce Prejudice Working together for a greater purpose may help people overcome group hostilities Muzzier Sherif Demonstrated that competition created hostility, prejudice, and discrimination Cooperation among groups to achieve a superordinate goal eliminated these problems Eliot Aronson Jigsaw classroom Groups Inﬂuence Individual Behavior Social facilitation involves three basic steps: Organisms are genetically predisposed to become aroused by the presence of others of their own species Arousal leads to increased performance of the dominant response in that environment Simple dominant responses are improved but more complex responses are impaired because the presence of others may interfere with cognition Social loading: people work less hard in groups when no one person’s eﬀort are identiﬁed Deindividuation: people sometimes lose their individuality when they become part of a group occurs when people are not self-aware or when there is diﬀusion of responsibility Stanford prison study We Conform to Social Norms Conforming to social norms or expectations is necessary in a civilized society Autokinetic eﬀect Solomon Asch’s objective line length test When we conform for acceptance, this is Normative Social Inﬂuence The Chameleon Eﬀect Conformity: adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard When Do We Harm or Help Others? Aggression can be adaptive Many factors may inﬂuence helping behavior Prosocial behaviors provide beneﬁts to those around us and promote positive interpersonal relationships Such behaviors may ensure the survival of the human species as such behaviors improve group functioning and strong groups are more likely to function in an eﬀective manner Some situations lead to bystander apathy people fear social blunders diﬀusion of social responsibility people are less likely to help when they are anonymous and can remain so a cost-beneﬁt trade-oﬀ involves how much harm people risk by helping, or what beneﬁts they would have to forgo if they stopped to help Attraction The Person Next Door: The Propinquity Eﬀect One of the simplest determinants of interpersonal attraction is proximity (sometimes called propinquity) Propinquity eﬀect: the ﬁnding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends. Chapter 13 - Personality Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize Unconscious and Dynamic Processes Sigmund Freud developed one of the most inﬂuential theories of personality development by observing patients he treated His underlying assumption was that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, inﬂuence behavior There are three major components of Freud’s theory: Topographical model conscious, unconscious, preconscious Development of sexual instincts oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital psychosexual stages Structural model id, ego, superego defense mechanisms were described as strategies used by the ego to cope with the anxiety caused by conﬂicts between the id and the superego Type and Trait Approaches Describe Behavioral Dispositions Typologies: discrete categories in which we place people Traits: Behavioral dispositions that endure over time and across situations Implicit personality theory: personality characteristics go together, allowing for predictions about people on the basis of minimal evidence Estimates of the number of traits have ranged from almost 18,000 to the 16 Cattle identiﬁed through factor analysis to the Big Five. Eysenck’s hierarchical model: The speciﬁc response level observed behaviors the habitual response level behaviors observed on several occasions traits Eysenck proposed three superordinate traits: introversion-extraversion, emotional stability, and psychoticism (or constraint) The Big Five or Five Factor Model: Five basic personality traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism Signiﬁcant evidence supports the ﬁve factor model including some predictive studies and cross-cultural studies Personality Refers to Both Unique and Common Characteristics Allport divdidid the study of personality into two types of approaches Idiographic (person centered) Nomothetic (focused on traits) Idiographic theorists are more likely to use case studies or the narrative approach Nomothetic theorists tend to compare people by using common trait measures Questionnaires or other similar methods Choice of which personality measures to use tends to be determined by theoretical orientation of the user. Objective and Projective Methods to Assess Personality Projective techniques Rorschach inkblot tests and the TAT Reﬂect psychodynamic theories as based on the assumption that people will project their unconscious processes onto the ambiguous stimuli (projective hypothesis) Objective Measures NEO personality Inventory and the California Q Sort Do not rest on the assumptions of psychodynamic theories Consist of self-report questionnaires or direct observations of behavior People Are Sometimes Inconsistent Situationism Mischel proposed that behaviors are determined as much by situations as by personality traits This aﬀected the ﬁeld for more than a decade and caused considerable rifts between: social psychologists, who tended to emphasize situational forces personality psychologists, who focused on individual dispositions The basic argument made by personality researchers in the person-situation debate is the extents to which traits predict behavior depends on: The centrality of the trait The aggregation of behaviors over time The type of trait being evaluated Behavior Is Inﬂuenced by Personality and Situations Personality dispositions are meaningful constructs that predict people’s behavior over time and across many circumstances Yet people are also highly sensitive to social context, and most conform to situational norms
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