Human Development Article (Random note)
Human Development Article (Random note) ECON 2005
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Davis on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECON 2005 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Steve Trost in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Economics in Economcs at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Jeannette K. Davis Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder 1. Reference Information Dunsmore, J. C., Booker, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2013). Parental emotion coaching and child emotion regulation as protective factors for children with oppositional defiant disorder. Social Development, 22(3), 444466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.14679507.2011.00652.x 2. Literature Review Right off the bat, the author wants us to know that oppositional defiant disorder is a behavioral disorder in a child that causes disobedient behavior and conduct problems. The child has trouble gaining and maintaining friendships, having emotional control when negative situations arise, and coping with stressful emotions. The two processes that are the most important for socioemotional development are emotion regulation and emotion lability. When children are able to manage and evaluate their emotions, they learn how to adapt and react to different situations. This is called emotion regulation. Emotion regulation is positive because there is less anxiety, good social skills, control of emotions, and the child is most likely to perform better in school. Unlike emotion regulation, emotion lability is a more negative tendency, for when a child’s sensitivity is higher, it makes the child react to different situations very emotionally with feelings more intense than normal whether they are positive or negative. Children with emotion lability would most likely have depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviors, mood swings, and irritable symptoms. The author shares in the introduction that emotion coaching is a philosophy that a parent learns about their child’s emotions and helps their child not only understand the emotions that he/she is having, but also teaching the child how to express emotions. The relationship between the mother and the child greatly corresponds with how the child expresses and controls his/her emotions. The children who have good emotion regulation will most likely have a better emotional relationship with the mother, the mother is probably aware of the child’s emotions, and the child will have lower emotion lability. The children who do not receive good, maternal emotion coaching have a tendency to have higher aggression and negative peer play. Dunsmore, Booker, and Ollendick’s research is important because society needs to understand these emotional socialization processes of why children express certain emotions, how to go about situations when the child has behavioral problems, and what the family can do to coach the child to help regulate and control the child’s emotions. 3. Research Question The goal of the research was to examine children with oppositional defiant disorder’s adjustment to a positive emotional factor and emotion coaching from the mother, and child regulation as a measure of adaptive socioemotional functioning. The area of development they were interested in were the externalizing symptoms because of the characteristics of children with ODD, and the internalizing symptoms because of internal problems such as anxiety, mood swings, and depression. 4. Hypothesis The researchers expected to find that the child’s emotion regulation would have a positive relation to the parental emotion coaching, and for a child with high emotion lability, they would have stronger associations with parental emotion coaching. 5. Method The key variables that the researchers used were emotion lability, children’s emotion regulation, and mothers’ emotion coaching. There were 24 daughters and 48 sons (72 motherchild dyads) who took questionnaires, did interviews, and conversed about family and social emotionrelated circumstances. They assessed symptoms of psychiatric disorders by using an ADISP, which is an interview that can help develop a severity rating to determine if the disorder is a diagnosable condition. This research was longitudinal and had a cause and effect relationship. BASC (Behavior Assessment System for Children) used only three scales from the parent report that were in the present study: externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive skills, and two scales from the child report: internalizing, and personal adjustment. 6. Results The researchers found that when mothers’ emotion coaching was connected to externalizing behavior that was with lower mother and child reports, the children were more likely to be high in emotion lability. The results showed that for children with ODD that are also high in emotion lability, a protective factor for these children would be maternal emotion coaching. Maternal emotion coaching is associated with emotion regulation; correspondingly, the parental report of adaptive skills were high, and the child report of internalizing symptoms were high, and the child report of personal adjustment were low. The researchers’ findings were extremely consistent with the hypothesis. 7. Discussion The findings were that for children with ODD, maternal emotion coaching is associated with children’s emotion regulation with positive outcomes. They also found that children higher in emotion lability would have stronger associations of maternal emotion coaching. Children’s emotion regulation make them more adaptive, have a higher report of internalizing symptoms, and being able to identify emotional experiences. The mother’s emotion coaching of their child’s emotion regulation can in turn help them be aware of the child’s strengths and how the child’s behavior compares with their peers’ behaviors. They point out that emotion regulation and emotion liability weren’t related, but children with ODD who are high in emotion lability are more likely to impulsively act out. Overall, there is a key role of emotion regulation for children with ODD. 8. Limitations and Future Research The study was done mostly on EuropeanAmericans and not on other ethnicities, and the families were mostly raised in rural areas instead of urban. In future research they could use a diverse bunch of people, so they would have many different children who had ODD from different cultural backgrounds. Then they could compare the results of children from alike backgrounds to kids with contrasting backgrounds. If I were to conduct a research project based on this idea, I would ask “How would children without a motherly figure in the household compare to children who do have the maternal emotion coach in the household? Does the father take on the parental role?”
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