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Test 2 Material

by: Brianna Bouterse

Test 2 Material 3333

Brianna Bouterse

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About this Document

These cover some of the material that will be on Exam 2
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
Genetics, gene mapping, chromsomes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Bouterse on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3333 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Thompson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
• Prokaryotes ⿞generally haploid ‣ there is only one coding strand within each bacterium, primary form of genetic information ‣ there are other pieces of DNA (plasmids) that are present and carry a small amount of genetic information ⿞single "chromosome" or linkage group ⿞linkage group often circular ‣ the way we map the genome will be different from that of eukaryotes ⿞DNA relatively free of protein ‣ particularly proteins that are involved in maintaining eukaryotic chromosome structure ‣ mechanisms are more simple ⿞coding capacity: example E. coli = about 4.2 x 10^6 bp ‣ dramatically smaller than that of normal eukaryotic cells ‣ gene use and structure is much more simple ‣ coding is minimal and efficient, no need for extra DNA, no extra space ⿞lack of membrane means transcription of mRNA can still be in progress when translation into protein begins ‣ no membrane-bound organelles ‣ no barrier between making mRNA and protein synthesis • as soon as gene is turned on, can make mRNA and begin being synthesized into a protein • no separation of transcription of mRNA and translation of that into a protein product --> no opportunity to manipulate/modify mRNA before it is used • Eukaryotes ⿞DNA is in the form of nucleoprotein ‣ DNA-histone protein complex ‣ important role in the structure of chromosomes ‣ histones are a class of proteins that form protein complexes that DNA wraps around and link to each other to maintain integrity/stability of long DNA molecules • provides means by which they coil up in prophase during cell division ⿞each chromosome contains a single linear DNA molecule ‣ the "unineme model": DNA is a single continuous strand that is associated with independent proteins that the DNA wraps around ‣ ⿞coding capacity: example humans = about 3 x 10^9 bp ⿞nuclear membrane separates DNA transcription from translation ‣ mRNA is transported out of nucleus through nuclear pores where mRNA binds with ribosomes that use sequence of nucleotides to create protein products ‣ separation is critically important in allowing complex regulatory processes to occur ‣ membrane provides barrier so that initial transcript from gene can be processed • pieces can be added, deleted, etc. • Some regions of the genome have a known function: ⿞single copy sequences --> represented in haploid genome ‣ protein coding: ex. enzymes (many used for metabolic activities), cell signaling membrane receptors, and similar structural proteins ‣ not protein coding: ex. microRNAs, some regulatory sequences ⿞multiple copy sequences ‣ protein coding: ex. dispersed gene families, like actin (5 to 30 copies), keratins (20+ copies), and histones (100-1000 copies) ‣ RNA coding: ex. rRNA genes (nucleolar organizer region), tRNA genes (about 50 sites with about 10-1000 copies per site) ‣ not coding: ex. telomeres • regions at the end of a chromosome that get eroded as the chromosomes replicate during each cell division, can't start the process of DNA replication at an empty end • "protects" the central regions of each chromosome • No known function ⿞single copy sequences ‣ pseudogenes = untranscribed ghost genes ⿞multiple copy sequences ‣ repeated centromeric DNA sequences, part of the structure of the centromere ‣ transposable elements, like LINEs and SINEs ("jumping genes") --> DNA sequences that move • consequences if transposable element move and inserts itself in the middle of a coding region • creates a large section of a coding sequence that does not have a particular function • LINEs = long interspersed elements, 1-5 kb long • SINEs = short interspersed elements, ~10% of human genome, many of them but each one is <300 bp long ‣ variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) • micro satellites (repeats of 2-4 bp) --> Huntington's disease, the number of copies of the micro satellites determines how the protein behaves, causes/not causes the disease • mini satellites (repeats of about 15-50 bp) • 2-point mapping ⿞2 different genes that are heterozygous in one parent (AaBb) ⿞by doing a testcross (w/ homozygous recessive) can track frequency of linkages that have changed between parents and offspring ⿞Ex: in Drosophilia ‣ dp = dumpy, or small, wings ‣ b = black body color ‣ + = "wild type" allele ⿞so dp + b + x dp dp b b is a testcross ⿞you find: dp b dp b dp dp b b 32 + + dp + b + 33 dp + dp dp b + 16 + b dp + b b 19 100 total ⿞use x^2 to test null hypothesis that these testcross results fit 1:1:1:1 expectation dp b dp + + b + + obs: 32 16 19 33 exp: 25 25 25 25 (O-E)^2 7^2 (-9)^2 (-6)^2 8^2 sum((O-E)^2)/E 49/25 81/25 36/25 64/25 =9.2 degree of freedom = 4 - 1 = 3 P < 0.05 (use table given to determine P value based on degree of freedom) ⿞the percentage showing a recombined genotype = "the percent crossing-over" ‣ =(16 + 19)/100 =35/100 =35% =35 map units ‣ this is interpreted as 35 genetic map units (mu), since by definition 1% crossing over = 1 map unit ⿞when numbers are clearly not 1:1:1:1, don't waste time by doing a chi square test; go directly to calculating the map distance from the data • Physical evidence of recombination ⿞experiment by Curt Stern ‣ confirmed that the exchange of genetic traits in a dihybrid was associated with physical exchange between sister chromatids ‣ linkage is associated with a physical event that takes place during meiosis • extra material (physical markers) on the end of each chromosome showed if any crossovers took place during meiosis car B + + • cis linkage: AB/ab • trans linkage: Ab/aB ‣ terminal landmarks were lost from ends of one chromosome and both appeared on the other: car + + B ‣ would not be able to tell if crossover event occurs if the crossover areas display the same allele •


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