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Week 1 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

Week 1 Notes HY 362

Victoria Miller

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Here's week 1 of the notes from the course
Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Margaret Peacock
Class Notes
Russian Revolution, history, Western Civ
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Russia! 1905: The Players  The Autocracy o Peter the Great  Put Russia into the West o Alexander II  Freed the serfs  Slave armies don’t make good armies o Nicholas II  Last tsar of Russia  Comes to power in 1898  Reactionary tsar (not reforming)  Russia & Class Conflict: o 1. The Nobility  French Rev. scares them because their power is starting to diminish  Industrialization threatens power as well  1861 – lose all their serfs and free labor  They were totally reliant on free labor o 2. The Intelligensia  The gradual progression from moderate to radical ideas among the educated elites happened in the 19 century  Decemberists – 1825  Organized like the shittiest rebellion ever  Became martyrs and start this snowball that keeps on rolling…  1848 revolutions all over Europe fail  Nihilist  Populism -> answer lies with the peasantry and they need a reason to rise up and revolt, skip capitalism all together -> beautiful communist utopia -> mad summer of 1874  Peasantry isn’t interested  Marxism  Fight over the means of production  Vladimir Lenin  Skip capitalism because they have peasants  Vanguard o Core group of professional revolutionaries to push the revolution because the peasants won’t do it themselves  No conservative nation is as weak as when it tries to reform itself o 3. The Peasantry  Hard lives punctuated with moments of violence and rebellion o 4. The Working Class  Industrialization in Russia starts late  Workers face horrible conditions and are increasingly exposed to radical ideas  The Russo-Japanese War o The Russian struggle for a warm water port vs. the Japanese struggle for empire o Russia thought it’d be easy but totally failed o Japanese sink entire Russian Pacific fleet  Sent the Baltic fleet to help the Pacific fleet, 18 month trip, only to find the Pacific fleet was gone o pretty much the entire Russian navy sank o Consequences?  Damages public opinion on the legitimacy of the government  Attempts at Reform o New minister of affairs, Prince Dimitri Sviatopolk-Mirski, because the old minister died  Initiates political spring  Releases political prisoners  Allow for limited publications o The Union of Liberation stages a massive “banquet campaign”  Joined by the masses, especially after January 1905  Students stop going to school o Bloody Sunday  Jan. 9, 1905, Father Georgii Gapon leads a peaceful march to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg  1901 government builds its own unions to keep them from getting too radical o Assembly of Russian Factory Workers o Father Georgii Gapon payed to lead the union o People start to really like it and start to participate and Garpon starts to lead them  March to personally petition the tsar for help but the tsar wasn’t there so his guards “handle it”  Troops open fire on the marchers and a couple hundred people died  Causes massive general strikes all over the country  The Beginning of the Revolution o Soviet (Union) o October 1905, massive general strike  Everything shuts down o October Manifesto (an empty promise?)  Civil liberties are granted, a duma is created  Creation of a constitutional monarchy  Many condemn the Manifesto as an empty promise and strikes continue  Liberals find this scary and group splits  Octoberists -> good w/ the Manifesto  Cadets -> still want verification  Fundamental Laws  Political parties are legalized  Men get suffrage  Duma gets some power Paths to Revolution  What are the long-term causes of the Russian Revolution? o Intelligencia o Autocratic regime o Emancipated/angry serfs and peasants o Rising urban working population  World War I o Russia had never experienced a war like WWI, a protracted modern war that required mobilizing the entire society and economy as well as the military o Alliances  Turned it into a total war o Technology  Turned into a defensive war and didn’t know how to deal with machine guns, tanks, etc. o Society was in flux  War would return the world back to normal o War Enthusiasm  Initially, the war was a positive event. But patriotic enthusiasm faded as shortages and casualties mounted. o Conditions at the Front  Short supplies, vast human losses, a military in retreat, declining morale  Super difficult to get supplies to Eastern Front  Russian trains don’t fit on German tracks  3 million Russians dead by 1916 o Battle of Tannenberg, August 23-30, 1914  Creates a stalemate on the Eastern Front o Conditions at home  Economy is breaking down due to wartime demands  Decrease in productivity because all skilled male labor is off fighting the war  Cities suffer from massive food shortages  High demand causes prices to skyrocket  Creates inflation  Peasants dictating the price of grain  No fuel and people start tearing down fences to burn them in order to stay warm  Crime increases as people become more desperate to feed their families o Tsardom in Retreat (at just the wrong time)  Nicholas II makes some crucial errors  Makes him look responsible for all the losing that’s been going on  Leaves Rasputin and German wife in charge of the country


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