Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes HY 362
Popular in Russia-Soviet Union since 1894
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 362 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Russia-Soviet Union since 1894 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Russia! 1905: The Players The Autocracy o Peter the Great Put Russia into the West o Alexander II Freed the serfs Slave armies don’t make good armies o Nicholas II Last tsar of Russia Comes to power in 1898 Reactionary tsar (not reforming) Russia & Class Conflict: o 1. The Nobility French Rev. scares them because their power is starting to diminish Industrialization threatens power as well 1861 – lose all their serfs and free labor They were totally reliant on free labor o 2. The Intelligensia The gradual progression from moderate to radical ideas among the educated elites happened in the 19 century Decemberists – 1825 Organized like the shittiest rebellion ever Became martyrs and start this snowball that keeps on rolling… 1848 revolutions all over Europe fail Nihilist Populism -> answer lies with the peasantry and they need a reason to rise up and revolt, skip capitalism all together -> beautiful communist utopia -> mad summer of 1874 Peasantry isn’t interested Marxism Fight over the means of production Vladimir Lenin Skip capitalism because they have peasants Vanguard o Core group of professional revolutionaries to push the revolution because the peasants won’t do it themselves No conservative nation is as weak as when it tries to reform itself o 3. The Peasantry Hard lives punctuated with moments of violence and rebellion o 4. The Working Class Industrialization in Russia starts late Workers face horrible conditions and are increasingly exposed to radical ideas The Russo-Japanese War o The Russian struggle for a warm water port vs. the Japanese struggle for empire o Russia thought it’d be easy but totally failed o Japanese sink entire Russian Pacific fleet Sent the Baltic fleet to help the Pacific fleet, 18 month trip, only to find the Pacific fleet was gone o pretty much the entire Russian navy sank o Consequences? Damages public opinion on the legitimacy of the government Attempts at Reform o New minister of affairs, Prince Dimitri Sviatopolk-Mirski, because the old minister died Initiates political spring Releases political prisoners Allow for limited publications o The Union of Liberation stages a massive “banquet campaign” Joined by the masses, especially after January 1905 Students stop going to school o Bloody Sunday Jan. 9, 1905, Father Georgii Gapon leads a peaceful march to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg 1901 government builds its own unions to keep them from getting too radical o Assembly of Russian Factory Workers o Father Georgii Gapon payed to lead the union o People start to really like it and start to participate and Garpon starts to lead them March to personally petition the tsar for help but the tsar wasn’t there so his guards “handle it” Troops open fire on the marchers and a couple hundred people died Causes massive general strikes all over the country The Beginning of the Revolution o Soviet (Union) o October 1905, massive general strike Everything shuts down o October Manifesto (an empty promise?) Civil liberties are granted, a duma is created Creation of a constitutional monarchy Many condemn the Manifesto as an empty promise and strikes continue Liberals find this scary and group splits Octoberists -> good w/ the Manifesto Cadets -> still want verification Fundamental Laws Political parties are legalized Men get suffrage Duma gets some power Paths to Revolution What are the long-term causes of the Russian Revolution? o Intelligencia o Autocratic regime o Emancipated/angry serfs and peasants o Rising urban working population World War I o Russia had never experienced a war like WWI, a protracted modern war that required mobilizing the entire society and economy as well as the military o Alliances Turned it into a total war o Technology Turned into a defensive war and didn’t know how to deal with machine guns, tanks, etc. o Society was in flux War would return the world back to normal o War Enthusiasm Initially, the war was a positive event. But patriotic enthusiasm faded as shortages and casualties mounted. o Conditions at the Front Short supplies, vast human losses, a military in retreat, declining morale Super difficult to get supplies to Eastern Front Russian trains don’t fit on German tracks 3 million Russians dead by 1916 o Battle of Tannenberg, August 23-30, 1914 Creates a stalemate on the Eastern Front o Conditions at home Economy is breaking down due to wartime demands Decrease in productivity because all skilled male labor is off fighting the war Cities suffer from massive food shortages High demand causes prices to skyrocket Creates inflation Peasants dictating the price of grain No fuel and people start tearing down fences to burn them in order to stay warm Crime increases as people become more desperate to feed their families o Tsardom in Retreat (at just the wrong time) Nicholas II makes some crucial errors Makes him look responsible for all the losing that’s been going on Leaves Rasputin and German wife in charge of the country
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