Review Sheet for BIOL 600 at KU 3
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Biol 600 Intro Biochemistry Practice Questions for Quiz 3 1 Which one of the following groups is suf cient to make a phosphoglyceride 2 b c d two fatty acids glycerol and ascorbate E doesn39t have phosphate or an amino acid head group glyceroliliphosphate serine and two molecules ofpalmitate IZl just what we need to make a phosphatidate and add an amino acid to it sphingosine myelin and sarcosine E If you don39t recognize these you can bet they39re not right glyceroliliphosphate 2 molecules ofoleate and sarcosine E has everything but the amino acid 2 Which statement about the CaATPase is false 2 b it can diffuse laterally in the plane ofthe membrane true lateral or sidetoside diffusion is an explicit feature of the Fluid Mosaic Model which we discussed its transmembrane domain consists of 7 alpha helices with hydrophobic residues facing the lipid bilayer and hydrophilic residues facing the interior of the ion channel IZl The helices m have hydrophobic residues on the outside in order to be soluble in the membrane ie to interact favorably with the hydrophobic membrane lipids This is not a soluble protein in which the helices would be hydrophilic polar on the outside 3 Which one of the following statements is false 2 b d glucose and mannose are epimers ofeach other whereas ociDiglucose and iDiglucose are anomers ofeach other EThis is true ribulo se is a keto se related structurally to dihydroxyacetone whereas ribose is an aldose related to glyceraldehyde E This is true you know that glyceraldehyde is the minimal aldose and you know ribose is one of the few aldoses I asked you to learn Difructose adopts the furanose ring conformation whereas Diglucose is a pyranose E Also true You learned these structures Polysaccharides can be formed only Via 0L7 14 glycosidic bonds E False You know that there are several important di and polysaccharides which are l4 linkages you should also remember that there are 2 and 6 bonds 4 As a result of which structural difference between glucose and fructose can phosphorylated glucose or phosphofructose but not both do the following in glycolysis 2 b 0 glucose adopts a cyclic structure in solution whereas fructose remains an open linear chain E No you know these are both ring structures the structural symmetry of fructose allows it to be doubly phosphorylated and then split into two triose phosphates during glycolysis IZl Yes The hexose must be symmetrical in order for it to be cleaved into two similar trioses GA3P and DHAP they are anomers at C1 of each other E This isn39t possible they don39t both have the same ring structure 5 Under anaerobic or oxygen deficit conditions in glycolysis 2 b d 2 ATP and NADJr molecules used up in the quotpreparationquot stage ofglycolysis are always regenerated in the quotpayoffquot phase Z No NAD is regenerated only under aerobic conditions NADJr is regenerated when NADH reduces pyruVate in the lactate dehydrogenase reaction IZl Exactly Anaerobic glycolysis can produce lactate reversibly Other products are possible such as ethanol formed irreversibly All cellular metabolism comes to a halt Z You know this cannot be possible in the shortterm conditions we discussed In fact the liver continues to convert lactate into glucose Glycolysis is inhibited but gluconeogenesis proceeds E LOW energy levels a low energy charge Will stimulate glycolysis in order to increase the cell39s energy charge Gluconeogenesis will be inhibited because it consumes ATP and NADPH hence reducing the energy charge If a muscle cell has a low energy charge the glycolytic pathway will be i activated because the low concentration of ATP relieves inhibition of PyruVate Kinase and Phosphofructokinase IZl Yes A low energy charge stimulates energyproducing pathways and a high energy charge inhibits them Here both PK and PFK are inhibited by ATP Biol 600 Intro Biochemistry Practice Questions for Quiz 3 10 b c d inhibited because the low concentration of ATP inhibits Pyruvate Kinase and Phosphofructokinase E No this is the opposite of what happens inhibited by fructoseil67bisphosphate and by fru7267bisphosphate Both these compounds stimulate glycolysis frul6P2 at PK and fruZ6P2 at PFK activated by high concentrations of citrate E No this activates gluconeogenesis and inhibits glycolysis Which of the following is the correct relationship between anabolic and catabolic processes a b anabolism stores potential energy chemical potential and reducing potential in reduced carbon compounds whereas catabolism releases energy in the form ofheat from reduced carbon compounds E Unfortunately this isn39t correct The description of anabolism is OK but the description of catabolism suggests that all the energy from oxidation of food is wasted given off as heat rather than conserved as ATP and NADPH catabolism is an oxidative process that extracts energy from reduced carbon compounds and stores it in ATP and NADH anabolism transfers the potential energy ofATP and NADPH to reduced carbon compounds IZl Good Glycolysis proceeds in the direction of pyruvate formation because a b C d each step by itself is energetically favorable E Some ofthe steps are unfavorable the unfavorable energy of converting 137bisphosphoglycerate to Zephosphoglycerate is more than compensated by the negative AGO 39 for hydrolysis of PEP lZl Exactly so the pathway is quotpushed forwardquot by the energyiyielding step of glucose767P formation M This step is also one which puts energy into the pathway However see the reservation in l 0 a below most of the reaction steps are phosphoryl transfers E Although many steps are ptransfers only a few are transfers from ATP which are strongly exergonic energyyielding or essentially irreversible and can drive the pathway The others are intramolecular transfers which have a very low free energy change ATP is said to be a quothigh energyquot compound because a b C d it releases energy when combusted in a bomb calorimeter E True but irrelevant so does glucose This energy comes from total combustion of the entire molecule The useful quotenergyquot stored in ATP is different the terminal phosphoryl group of ATP is in an excited state E Not true the terminal phosphoryl group is highly reactive E No the terminal P isn39t very reactive unless acted on by a catalyst it possesses a very negative free energy for transfer ofthe terminal phosphoryl group to another acceptor M Yes the phosphoryl is readily transferred to an acceptor Transfer to alcoholic or acidic oXygens or to certain amines relieves the unfavorable interactions between adjacent phosphates in ATP In a multistep biochemical pathway such as glycolysis which one of the following would not be a likely regulatory step a b d triose phosphate isomerase M This reaction is relatively reversible and it controls an input to glycolysis if you blocked TPI glycolysis would still continue at V2 the normal rate so it39s not a good candidate for regulation hexokinase E Hexokinase is relatively irreversible and in muscle cells it traps glucose within the cell thus committing it to one of several metabolic fates Because it39s not a a step exclusively of glycolysis it isn39t a speci c regulatory step of glycolysis pyruvate kinase E This is an essentially irreversible step so it39s a good point for control glyceraldehyde 37pho sphate dehydrogenase IZlAlso a step with a low free energy change hence relatively and not a good choice for regulation
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