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Human Sexuality

by: Chaleah Williams

Human Sexuality PSYC 3070-1001

Chaleah Williams
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About this Document

2/15/2016 - 2/19/2016 if you wasnt in class
Pat Nebl
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaleah Williams on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3070-1001 at Bowling Green State University taught by Pat Nebl in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see in Human Development at Bowling Green State University.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
2/15/2016 PSYC 3070 Monday notes Birth Control Perfect-use pregnancy rate - Use the technique properly and consistently Typical-use pregnancy rate - Use the technique, regardless of whether or not they use it properly or consistently Abstinence= 100% effective! (: Relatively ineffective methods - The male withdraws the penis prior to orgasm and ejaculates outside of the vagina - The cowpers gland secretes fluid prior to orgasm - But, Relies on the males self-control Douching ( terrible method ) - Rinsing out the vagina after sex in order to remove sperm - However, sperm will have already reach the cervix, douching may even push them forward Fertility awareness Abstaining from intercourse while the female is likely ovulating Calendar method uses formula to estimate date of ovulation ( but cycles are variable) Billing method uses cervical mucus consistency to estimate ovulation, 97% perfect use rate but 76-78% typical use rate Symptotheramal method uses basal body temperature along with cervical mucus, 99.6% perfect rate but 80-87% typical use rate. Spermicides ( foams, jellies, creams, film, suppositories, and tablets that contain sperm-killing chemicals) Often used in conjunction with a barrier method - Perfect-use rate of 82% - Typical-use rate of 72% Barrier Methods Male condoms - Invested in 1500s using lamb intestines - Most modern condoms made out of rubber - Perfect-use is 98%, but typical-use is 82% Female condom - Similar to a male condom, one open-ended ring is at vaginal entrance while the close-ending ring is pushed back to the cervix - Perfect use is 95% but typical-use is 89% Wednesday Notes The Pill - Nearly 100 brands, many of which act slightly differently - Synthetic estrogen and/ or synthetic progesterone prevent the pituitary from releasing FSH and LH a. Thicken cervical mucus, preventing sperm to travel b. Preventing release of egg( ovulation) Pill needs to be taken every day at the same time to be effective - 20-50% of user doesn’t take it every day The Patch - Instead of having to take a pill a day, one has to change a patch every week ( 4 week off) The ring - The ring inserted into vagina and left for 3 weeks - Perfect-use is 99.7% and typical-use is 91% for both - Both provide synthetic estrogen and progesterone The shot - injectible drug containing synthetic progesterone’s, every 3 months - perfect-use is 99.8% and typical use it 94% Long- Acting Reversible contraception Intrauterine Device ( IUD) - More common than the pill worldwide - Copper or progesterone-releasing ( effective for 10-12 or 5-7 years, respectively) - Prevent sperm transportation through uterus - Better than 99% effective Hormone Implants - Single rod inserted under skin for 3 years - Releases synthetic progesterone Sterilization Vasectomy *Better option - Does not interfere with normal hormone production Tubal Sterilization - May safely engage in intercourse after operation ( 3 months for males) Emergency Contraception Plan B - “ The morning after pill” - Taken after intercourse has already occurred - 50% effective if taken within 3 days - High level of progesterone prevents conception Terminating Pregnancies Medical Abortion - Ru 486 chemically blocks progesterone and endometrium cannot be maintained - 92 effective, must occur within first 8 weeks Dilation and Curettage - Cervix is dilated and uterine lining is scraped - Used to be most common form for first 15 weeks of pregnancy Dilation and Evacuation - Vacuum removes fetal material Induced Labor The Future Male Pill - Attempt to make a pill that inhibits sperm production - Often side effects of lowered sex drive and inability to have an erection - Potential difficulties in inhibiting production of ANY perm Vaccination - Cause body to produce antibodies to protein in either eggs or sperm - Inhibits production, function,, or outcome - Needs to be highly tissue- specific 2/19/16-Friday Pregnancy and childbirth Conception - Graafian follicle breaks open and releases ovum, where it enters the fallopian tube - Takes 3-7 days to travel down the uterus - 200-400 million sperm released during ejaculation - Sperm can live 3 to 5 days in reproductive tract Implantation - Membrane allows sperm to pass, upon one sperm passing the membrane almost instantaneously changes to prevent more sperm - Within 24-30 hours, nuclei have focused to form a zygote - Cell division begins but size does not increase - Blastocyst (100 cells) reached uterus - 8-11 days ovulation, blastocyst attaches to endometrium First Trimester Morning Sickness: 50-90% experience nausea/vomting - Week 6/8 after missed period Embryo/Fetus - Ectoderm forms nervous system, skin, and teeth - Mesoderm forms muscles, skeleton and blood vessels - Endoderm forms internal organs 3rd week: neural tube forms th 4 wee: umbilical cord, heart, and digestive system begin to form th 5 week: heart is pumping and all organs are developing Fetus 5 month: detectable heartbeat, respond to sound, and has definite periods of sleep and wakefulness 6 month: can open eyes, suck thumb, and respond to light End of this trimester, the fetus will be about 1 foot long and weigh 1 pound th End of 7 month: fetus about 15 inches long and weighs 1.5 pounds 8 month: fatty tissue develops under skin and eight gain rapidly End of 8 month: 16-17 inches long and weighs 4 pounds, will gain .5 pound per week th 9 month: about 20 inches and 7-7.5 pounds Complication of pregnancy Teratogens: substances that can harm and embryo/fetus Each part of the development has a crucial period when some feature is developing and is susceptible Alcohol: most sensitive during week 3 to end of first term of pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndromes associated with physical deformities and mental deficiencies Smoking: low birth weight, miscarriage, preterm birth, and infant mortality Greatest cross-cultural aversion is to meat, fish, poultry, and eggs = more likely to carry parasites - Pregnant females are immunosuppressed Complications of pregnancy Miscarriages - As many as 3 to 4 conceptions fail to implant or are spontaneously aborted - 15% of pregnancies past this first 6 weeks fail to survive to term Rh incompatibility - Antibodies in mother attack blood of the infant - Usually problem after first child, injection given to prevent antibodies Preeclampsia - Affects 3-5% pf pregnant women - Excessive water retention leads to high blood pressure, weight gain, swollen joints due to altered immune response - Baby must be delivered prematurely or else coma may occur


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