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POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes

by: Hailey True

POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes POL 161.001

Hailey True

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Material over Plato's Republic for quiz 1, including book 9 that was not covered in class.
Introduction to Political Theory
Jakeet Singh
Class Notes
political, political science, Introduction to Political Theory, Political Theory, Theory, Plato, Plato's Republic, Socrates
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey True on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 161.001 at Illinois State University taught by Jakeet Singh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes Plato’s Republic  Questions o What is Justice? o Why should individuals be just? o What is a moral life and why should I live it?  Concept is taken for granted by Socrates  Socrates’ Paradox: Asserts this but does not provide much information  about the moral life  Plato attempts to provide such an answer using Socrates as a character  Book I o Cephalus wants to have a conversation with Socrates  Money and its importance  Old age  Justice  Cephalus argues wealth is good because you can pay your debts to  the gods and feel more at ease that you will be in a good afterlife. o No pressures to do unjust things to people o Socrates: what is the concept of Justice Cephalus speaks of?  Begins as broad conversation  Refuting common notions of Justice through elenchus with Cephalus and  Polemarchus  Cephalus bows out of conversation and his son Polemarchus picks  it up  Cephalus: Justice is speaking truths and paying your debts  Polemarchus  Justice is treating people appropriately depending on the person  Treating your friends properly by benefiting them and harming  your enemies  Ends up agreeing with an opposite claim after his discussion with  Socrates  Thrasymachus (Key Character)     Presents the challenge that the entire book is based on  Enters conversation in anger and frustration with Socrates  Plato is himself writing into the text some of his own frustrations  with Socrates o 336b  Question and deconstruct other peoples’ views but  does not offer his own, Thrasymachus wants a clear  answer  When questioned like this by others,  Socrates claims ignorance  Initially does this to Thrasymachus    Justice is the advantage if the stronger  o What is defined as moral and just is defined/determined by  the rulers of society. They set the rules/values/norms,  instead of being given by the gods. These rules are meant to further benefit the stronger (wealthy elites). o A trick by the powerful to keep you serving them      Injustice works out better in the end  350d claims justice is good and injustice is bad  “Justice is virtue and wisdom and that  injustice is vice and ignorance, I said …But  we also said that injustice is powerful, or  don’t you remember that Thrasymachus?” o Side note: Thrasymachus was historically a Sophist  Wealthy elite that uses rhetoric   Therefore, he would rather make a speech than  engage in elenchus.  Socrates does not allow this as it would not be an  intelligent, philosophical debate  Bows out of conversation  Shift from Socraic Deconstruction to  Platonic Construction  Book II o Key figures: Glaucon and Adeimantus  Plato’s brothers o Glaucon begins with a 3 part distinction   Why or in what way is Justice good?  Something that is goof in itself, intrinsically, inherently good.  Something that is good for its consequences  o Outcome but not valued in itself  Something that is good both in itself and for its consequences o The highest category  The most valued things fall in this category  Knowledge   Health rd       Socrates spends book II convincing that justice belongs to the 3    category     Glaucon and Adeimantus state everyone thinks of justice as an  argument for the consequence.   Glaucon wants to hear why justice is good in itself     The Ring of Gyges (359d) o Testing of your morality based on ability of invisibility or  visibility  You can control for consequences Eliminate all consequences for doing  injustice and be known for doing justice  o Would you have any reason to be just if you could get away with doing injustice with no penalties, and while still  maintaining a perfect reputation for justice?  If there is intrinsic value in being just then penalty  would not matter Isolating justice and at all times because it is good intrinsically for you o The search for justice begins  st  1  find the definition for justice before being able to understand why/how  it is good Build a city, large scale, maginifying justice in the city vs justice in the soul o Soul is hard to peer into and understand Origins of a City o Human interdependence starts a city o Take care of the things we all need o Specialization of jobs o Glaucon has a problem  City of Pigs Only necessities  Luxurious City Add furniture and delicacies More realistic to natural human desires See how justice and injustice grows up in  cities  Provide contrasts Introduce the sources of injustice to help see justice better Good person, but sheltered from temptations then harder to judge if that person is really  just City of Pigs is the simple, proper city; but  the luxurious city is a more realistic society o Origins of war come from the desire  for more, the unnecessary appetites  in humans  Conquer more resources/land for expanding city  Now need new profession,  soldiers­ the Guardians o The Guardians  What types of people do they need to be? Spirited and philosophical o Bravery and courage (Spirited),  willingness to fight (Philosophical) o Like a guard dog  Can be ferocious but has  knowledge about who is  friend and who is enemy.  Without philosophical  knowledge, ferocity could be  destructive  How should they be educated? Exposure if certain music, stories, art Musical (literary) and physical training  Why? Soul­crafting, shaping character Shape guardian from scratch Teaching to reason, but also cultivating  souls that are almost pre­reason Teach then let them reason for themselves  what is good and what is not with tools they  were given Instincts are conditioned even before having  the ability to reason o Have right tastes and distastes o Something experienced, not reasoned o Pre­reasoned to be good or bad o Now, liberal vs moral education   Issue of freedom  Who? All children initially, but only the most  moral will complete the full education o Will be tested for moral, physical,  mental aptitudes o Place children in the appropriate  class o Those who are most incorruptible,  the most virtuous, should rule o Prove to the city first, the best  investment of the whole before  themselves o Splitting of the guardian class  (‘complete guardian’ vs.  ‘auxiliaries’)  Great spirit, strong, courage,  bravery, some philosophy Book III o Guardians  Education A Republic of Lies o 2 kinds of stories o True and false (fiction and non­fiction) o Some falsehoods would be allowed  Whether they are lies in words or in the soul ‘lie in words’ vs ‘lie in the soul’ Lie in the words permissible, not lie in the  soul o Main concern is of moral character  Words themselves are not the essence of truth; but  mora virtue/character Useful lies as medicine/drug  o Only the rulers would be entrusted to administer useful lies into society to  enforce proper character o The Noble Lie: “Myth of the Metals” (414d­e)  Children of the earth  The education receive was wen developing within  the earth, which was their mother  Will work to defend the city, loyalty to the land that the city’s on, patriotism to their people as brethren.   Mixture of metals in the earth, therefore parents of  gold are able to give birth to those of iron or silver.  Gold into rulers (Complete Guardians) Silver built into the soldiers (Auxiliaries) Iron and bronze into craftsmen (Producers)  Divine decision and authority into the class an  individual belongs Accept their roles Creates a strict social hierarchy of 3 classes  (Complete Guardians, Auxiliaries, and  Producers), but also allows for mobility in  every generation. The way of life of the guardians o Important that the guardians (both auxiliaries and rulers)  are moral and put the city first always, more is needed to  make sure they are not corrupted o No private property, wealth, luxuries o No private families, homes  Live communally, arrange marriages  Won’t know their children, raised communally,  unless needed to move to the producing class, will  be given all they need by government.  Having responsibility for a private family, put needs of their children will lead to corruption (416e) Producers will be taxed and produce to  provide basic needs for guardian class The most terrible and shameful thing of all  is for a shepherd to rear dogs as auxiliaries  to  help him with his flocks in a way that,  through licentiousness, hunger, or some  other bad trait of character, they do evil to  the sheep and become like wolves instead of dogs If rulers (sheperds) do not raise and  education dogs (auxiliaries) correctly or the  dogs are not right, then the dogs will turn to  wolves, they will become bad. Competitors in a competitive relationship,  living same lives as people they are  protecting, after the same things (417a­b) o Will compete, be hated, begin to hate their fellow citizens o Whole system will break down  Questions: Should those entrusted by society with power and force be the  most moral? Should they have the same lifestyle as others? According to Socrates, these people have the ability to overpower  the others in a society. Therefore, they need the proper education  to also be the most moral in the city/society. o Primary education not on physical, but moral/virtue o Could cause possible rebellion among the people  Question: Should politics promote morality? How far can/should politics  (e.g. laws, education) go in doing so. Political system is surrounded around morality. Book IV o The (Re­) Purified City  They initially unpurified the city after the city of pigs (pure city) making  the luxurious city The natural human desire for unnecessary things are a central part  of life. Then tried to perfect the limitations and desires of human beings o A just city for real human city.  What is the proper ruing relation among the classes Order of the city; the rulers will rule over the producers with help  of auxiliaries to protect, guide, and govern  What about the happiness of each class Not about happiness about every 1 part or individual, but the city  as a whole  4 classical Greek virtues To be a good city, a moral city, there must be 4 virtues: o Wisdom  The ruling class possesses it  The knowledge of what is best for the city is  wisdom (428d­e) o Courage  Possessed by auxiliaries  A knowledge of what it is to be feared, know who is to be feared and who is not to be feared; who to  fight and who not to fight. o Moderation  Self­control, staying in proper range, self­limiting  factor  Moderation is in the whole, spread throughout all  classes  A type of harmony; a census/agreement about the  proper ruling relation of the city (431e­432a) o Justice  Socrates Specialization, limiting yourself to doing  what you’re naturally suited to do All classes have to agree that they should  only do what they are best suited to do o Similarly to moderation o How have they spread moderation  and justice about the city?  ‘Myth of Metals’  Central function is to teach  moderation and justice What is injustice in the city o Being in the incorrect occupation From the ‘Just City’ to the ‘Just Soul’ o 3 parts of the soul  Reason Ruler of the soul  Spirit Natural ally of reason, the helper (440b) When reason is not strong enough, spirit is  the conscience honor bound, sense of duty,  gives force to reason. Control appetites  Appetites Lowest and largest part Like the producer class of the city Instincts/impulses o Necessary and unnecessary Emotional force behind our reason, rational  thought o Proper ruling relation: Reason ruling over the appetites  with help of spirit  Ideal soul o Same virtues exist in the soul as in the city  Wisdom Reason  Courage Spirit  Moderation Spread throughout soul, acceptance of ruling order and unison of the soul  Justice Built by all 3 parts of the soul Each part must do what it is naturally  supposed to do  What is a just/unjust soul 443d; just o No 1 part does the work of another  part, no meddling of parts o Harmony between classes, balanced  in relation with one another 444b, unjust o 1 part meddling with other parts o The appetites would be ruling the  soul or the duty part (sense of honor) is ruling  Destructive o Reason enslaved by appetites, reason will be misapplied and lead you to  destruction o Civil war inside if 3 parts are not  ordered properly Seems almost inherent why justice is good  at this point (445a­b) o Briefly at end considers why to be  just and its intrinsic value, then  deferred until Book 9. Book V­VI o Relationship between philosophy and politics  Also known as morals and politics relationship  471c Question: Glaucon­ Could this actually come to be, could this  moral just city actually happen? Socrates’ response: Rare, almost never, only in a random chance  event o If a philosopher became king or a king became a  philosopher  Set the rest in motion  New ruler for the city known as: (1) The philosopher­king The answer to the question of whether or not the just city is possible, and  how the just  city could come to be 473d In the ideal city the philosopher would  participate in politics (compare with  Socrates) o In general, in the real city,  philosopher should lay low and not  engage in politics o In ideal would be for the philosopher to lead politics rather than avoid  politics o Who is the philosopher? (2)  Lover of knowledge, the one who possesses and  practices wisdom (knowledge of what is good for  the city)  One who has a model of justice in her/his soul that  would allow them to best rule the city  Glaucon is worried because people usually think  philosophers are evil or useless. o But if philosophers should rule, why are most evil or  useless? (3)  Corruption and miseducation of those with the best  natures  Are in fact those with best nature and qualities But those with best natures in society  become corrupted and miseducated     Main Argument: people with best talents  become worst of all when corrupted o corruption  Most dangerous people are  those with most skill, when  corrupted, they become the  most evil  the mob, crowd, beast (peer  pressure, social stigma) takes  over and creates a flood that  almost no one can stop from  being carried away. (pg. 165­ 166)  This is currently how we are  educated.  People will use and  manipulate those with skill,  corrupting them  Others will flatter and pander them, cultivating their  ego/hubris o Useless  Those who are not corrupted  are considered useless  Analogy of the ship,  philosopher as stargazer/true  captain (pg. 162)  City is like a ship, the ship  has a ship owner who is  bigger than everyone else but has poor judgement because  he is so big. The ship owner  is the assembly of the city.  The crew/sailors want to  captain the ship but they do  not know how to either, they  just want the honor. They  pander to the ship owner to  turn the ship over to them.   Sailors are like politicians;  they don’t know what’s best  or how to rule the city, but  want power and prestige.   Meanwhile, the stargazer  (philosopher) is out on the  deck of the ship, looking at  the stars and learning how to  navigate the ship. He then is  the only one who actually  knows how to navigate the  ship, and what is best for the  ship (the city). Book IX – 588b­592b o Image of a beast, snake and lion, with a human  Beast is appetite, human is the divine ruler  3 part of spirit represented  Giving into shameful things would grow the beastlike part off the creature  and overpower human (gentile and rational) part Become vicious o Undiscovered unjust person (Like Ring of Gyges) becomes  even more vicious o Discovered one is calmed and tamed  Human, gentile part freed o In his/her best interest, they would work to maintain his/her soul  One of understanding will realize this Will value teachings that produce his soul,  despise others. Will not let the irrational (appetite, beast)  part of him care for his soul  In understanding of moderation, this is what  he will keep, thus work to “cultivate the  harmony of this body for the sake of the  consonance in his soul.


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