POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes
POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes POL 161.001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey True on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 161.001 at Illinois State University taught by Jakeet Singh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
POL 161 Quiz 1 Notes Plato’s Republic Questions o What is Justice? o Why should individuals be just? o What is a moral life and why should I live it? Concept is taken for granted by Socrates Socrates’ Paradox: Asserts this but does not provide much information about the moral life Plato attempts to provide such an answer using Socrates as a character Book I o Cephalus wants to have a conversation with Socrates Money and its importance Old age Justice Cephalus argues wealth is good because you can pay your debts to the gods and feel more at ease that you will be in a good afterlife. o No pressures to do unjust things to people o Socrates: what is the concept of Justice Cephalus speaks of? Begins as broad conversation Refuting common notions of Justice through elenchus with Cephalus and Polemarchus Cephalus bows out of conversation and his son Polemarchus picks it up Cephalus: Justice is speaking truths and paying your debts Polemarchus Justice is treating people appropriately depending on the person Treating your friends properly by benefiting them and harming your enemies Ends up agreeing with an opposite claim after his discussion with Socrates Thrasymachus (Key Character) Presents the challenge that the entire book is based on Enters conversation in anger and frustration with Socrates Plato is himself writing into the text some of his own frustrations with Socrates o 336b Question and deconstruct other peoples’ views but does not offer his own, Thrasymachus wants a clear answer When questioned like this by others, Socrates claims ignorance Initially does this to Thrasymachus Justice is the advantage if the stronger o What is defined as moral and just is defined/determined by the rulers of society. They set the rules/values/norms, instead of being given by the gods. These rules are meant to further benefit the stronger (wealthy elites). o A trick by the powerful to keep you serving them Injustice works out better in the end 350d claims justice is good and injustice is bad “Justice is virtue and wisdom and that injustice is vice and ignorance, I said …But we also said that injustice is powerful, or don’t you remember that Thrasymachus?” o Side note: Thrasymachus was historically a Sophist Wealthy elite that uses rhetoric Therefore, he would rather make a speech than engage in elenchus. Socrates does not allow this as it would not be an intelligent, philosophical debate Bows out of conversation Shift from Socraic Deconstruction to Platonic Construction Book II o Key figures: Glaucon and Adeimantus Plato’s brothers o Glaucon begins with a 3 part distinction Why or in what way is Justice good? Something that is goof in itself, intrinsically, inherently good. Something that is good for its consequences o Outcome but not valued in itself Something that is good both in itself and for its consequences o The highest category The most valued things fall in this category Knowledge Health rd Socrates spends book II convincing that justice belongs to the 3 category Glaucon and Adeimantus state everyone thinks of justice as an argument for the consequence. Glaucon wants to hear why justice is good in itself The Ring of Gyges (359d) o Testing of your morality based on ability of invisibility or visibility You can control for consequences Eliminate all consequences for doing injustice and be known for doing justice o Would you have any reason to be just if you could get away with doing injustice with no penalties, and while still maintaining a perfect reputation for justice? If there is intrinsic value in being just then penalty would not matter Isolating justice and at all times because it is good intrinsically for you o The search for justice begins st 1 find the definition for justice before being able to understand why/how it is good Build a city, large scale, maginifying justice in the city vs justice in the soul o Soul is hard to peer into and understand Origins of a City o Human interdependence starts a city o Take care of the things we all need o Specialization of jobs o Glaucon has a problem City of Pigs Only necessities Luxurious City Add furniture and delicacies More realistic to natural human desires See how justice and injustice grows up in cities Provide contrasts Introduce the sources of injustice to help see justice better Good person, but sheltered from temptations then harder to judge if that person is really just City of Pigs is the simple, proper city; but the luxurious city is a more realistic society o Origins of war come from the desire for more, the unnecessary appetites in humans Conquer more resources/land for expanding city Now need new profession, soldiers the Guardians o The Guardians What types of people do they need to be? Spirited and philosophical o Bravery and courage (Spirited), willingness to fight (Philosophical) o Like a guard dog Can be ferocious but has knowledge about who is friend and who is enemy. Without philosophical knowledge, ferocity could be destructive How should they be educated? Exposure if certain music, stories, art Musical (literary) and physical training Why? Soulcrafting, shaping character Shape guardian from scratch Teaching to reason, but also cultivating souls that are almost prereason Teach then let them reason for themselves what is good and what is not with tools they were given Instincts are conditioned even before having the ability to reason o Have right tastes and distastes o Something experienced, not reasoned o Prereasoned to be good or bad o Now, liberal vs moral education Issue of freedom Who? All children initially, but only the most moral will complete the full education o Will be tested for moral, physical, mental aptitudes o Place children in the appropriate class o Those who are most incorruptible, the most virtuous, should rule o Prove to the city first, the best investment of the whole before themselves o Splitting of the guardian class (‘complete guardian’ vs. ‘auxiliaries’) Great spirit, strong, courage, bravery, some philosophy Book III o Guardians Education A Republic of Lies o 2 kinds of stories o True and false (fiction and nonfiction) o Some falsehoods would be allowed Whether they are lies in words or in the soul ‘lie in words’ vs ‘lie in the soul’ Lie in the words permissible, not lie in the soul o Main concern is of moral character Words themselves are not the essence of truth; but mora virtue/character Useful lies as medicine/drug o Only the rulers would be entrusted to administer useful lies into society to enforce proper character o The Noble Lie: “Myth of the Metals” (414de) Children of the earth The education receive was wen developing within the earth, which was their mother Will work to defend the city, loyalty to the land that the city’s on, patriotism to their people as brethren. Mixture of metals in the earth, therefore parents of gold are able to give birth to those of iron or silver. Gold into rulers (Complete Guardians) Silver built into the soldiers (Auxiliaries) Iron and bronze into craftsmen (Producers) Divine decision and authority into the class an individual belongs Accept their roles Creates a strict social hierarchy of 3 classes (Complete Guardians, Auxiliaries, and Producers), but also allows for mobility in every generation. The way of life of the guardians o Important that the guardians (both auxiliaries and rulers) are moral and put the city first always, more is needed to make sure they are not corrupted o No private property, wealth, luxuries o No private families, homes Live communally, arrange marriages Won’t know their children, raised communally, unless needed to move to the producing class, will be given all they need by government. Having responsibility for a private family, put needs of their children will lead to corruption (416e) Producers will be taxed and produce to provide basic needs for guardian class The most terrible and shameful thing of all is for a shepherd to rear dogs as auxiliaries to help him with his flocks in a way that, through licentiousness, hunger, or some other bad trait of character, they do evil to the sheep and become like wolves instead of dogs If rulers (sheperds) do not raise and education dogs (auxiliaries) correctly or the dogs are not right, then the dogs will turn to wolves, they will become bad. Competitors in a competitive relationship, living same lives as people they are protecting, after the same things (417ab) o Will compete, be hated, begin to hate their fellow citizens o Whole system will break down Questions: Should those entrusted by society with power and force be the most moral? Should they have the same lifestyle as others? According to Socrates, these people have the ability to overpower the others in a society. Therefore, they need the proper education to also be the most moral in the city/society. o Primary education not on physical, but moral/virtue o Could cause possible rebellion among the people Question: Should politics promote morality? How far can/should politics (e.g. laws, education) go in doing so. Political system is surrounded around morality. Book IV o The (Re) Purified City They initially unpurified the city after the city of pigs (pure city) making the luxurious city The natural human desire for unnecessary things are a central part of life. Then tried to perfect the limitations and desires of human beings o A just city for real human city. What is the proper ruing relation among the classes Order of the city; the rulers will rule over the producers with help of auxiliaries to protect, guide, and govern What about the happiness of each class Not about happiness about every 1 part or individual, but the city as a whole 4 classical Greek virtues To be a good city, a moral city, there must be 4 virtues: o Wisdom The ruling class possesses it The knowledge of what is best for the city is wisdom (428de) o Courage Possessed by auxiliaries A knowledge of what it is to be feared, know who is to be feared and who is not to be feared; who to fight and who not to fight. o Moderation Selfcontrol, staying in proper range, selflimiting factor Moderation is in the whole, spread throughout all classes A type of harmony; a census/agreement about the proper ruling relation of the city (431e432a) o Justice Socrates Specialization, limiting yourself to doing what you’re naturally suited to do All classes have to agree that they should only do what they are best suited to do o Similarly to moderation o How have they spread moderation and justice about the city? ‘Myth of Metals’ Central function is to teach moderation and justice What is injustice in the city o Being in the incorrect occupation From the ‘Just City’ to the ‘Just Soul’ o 3 parts of the soul Reason Ruler of the soul Spirit Natural ally of reason, the helper (440b) When reason is not strong enough, spirit is the conscience honor bound, sense of duty, gives force to reason. Control appetites Appetites Lowest and largest part Like the producer class of the city Instincts/impulses o Necessary and unnecessary Emotional force behind our reason, rational thought o Proper ruling relation: Reason ruling over the appetites with help of spirit Ideal soul o Same virtues exist in the soul as in the city Wisdom Reason Courage Spirit Moderation Spread throughout soul, acceptance of ruling order and unison of the soul Justice Built by all 3 parts of the soul Each part must do what it is naturally supposed to do What is a just/unjust soul 443d; just o No 1 part does the work of another part, no meddling of parts o Harmony between classes, balanced in relation with one another 444b, unjust o 1 part meddling with other parts o The appetites would be ruling the soul or the duty part (sense of honor) is ruling Destructive o Reason enslaved by appetites, reason will be misapplied and lead you to destruction o Civil war inside if 3 parts are not ordered properly Seems almost inherent why justice is good at this point (445ab) o Briefly at end considers why to be just and its intrinsic value, then deferred until Book 9. Book VVI o Relationship between philosophy and politics Also known as morals and politics relationship 471c Question: Glaucon Could this actually come to be, could this moral just city actually happen? Socrates’ response: Rare, almost never, only in a random chance event o If a philosopher became king or a king became a philosopher Set the rest in motion New ruler for the city known as: (1) The philosopherking The answer to the question of whether or not the just city is possible, and how the just city could come to be 473d In the ideal city the philosopher would participate in politics (compare with Socrates) o In general, in the real city, philosopher should lay low and not engage in politics o In ideal would be for the philosopher to lead politics rather than avoid politics o Who is the philosopher? (2) Lover of knowledge, the one who possesses and practices wisdom (knowledge of what is good for the city) One who has a model of justice in her/his soul that would allow them to best rule the city Glaucon is worried because people usually think philosophers are evil or useless. o But if philosophers should rule, why are most evil or useless? (3) Corruption and miseducation of those with the best natures Are in fact those with best nature and qualities But those with best natures in society become corrupted and miseducated Main Argument: people with best talents become worst of all when corrupted o corruption Most dangerous people are those with most skill, when corrupted, they become the most evil the mob, crowd, beast (peer pressure, social stigma) takes over and creates a flood that almost no one can stop from being carried away. (pg. 165 166) This is currently how we are educated. People will use and manipulate those with skill, corrupting them Others will flatter and pander them, cultivating their ego/hubris o Useless Those who are not corrupted are considered useless Analogy of the ship, philosopher as stargazer/true captain (pg. 162) City is like a ship, the ship has a ship owner who is bigger than everyone else but has poor judgement because he is so big. The ship owner is the assembly of the city. The crew/sailors want to captain the ship but they do not know how to either, they just want the honor. They pander to the ship owner to turn the ship over to them. Sailors are like politicians; they don’t know what’s best or how to rule the city, but want power and prestige. Meanwhile, the stargazer (philosopher) is out on the deck of the ship, looking at the stars and learning how to navigate the ship. He then is the only one who actually knows how to navigate the ship, and what is best for the ship (the city). Book IX – 588b592b o Image of a beast, snake and lion, with a human Beast is appetite, human is the divine ruler 3 part of spirit represented Giving into shameful things would grow the beastlike part off the creature and overpower human (gentile and rational) part Become vicious o Undiscovered unjust person (Like Ring of Gyges) becomes even more vicious o Discovered one is calmed and tamed Human, gentile part freed o In his/her best interest, they would work to maintain his/her soul One of understanding will realize this Will value teachings that produce his soul, despise others. Will not let the irrational (appetite, beast) part of him care for his soul In understanding of moderation, this is what he will keep, thus work to “cultivate the harmony of this body for the sake of the consonance in his soul.
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