Week 4: Lecture, Book, and Class Notes
Week 4: Lecture, Book, and Class Notes HIS 121
Popular in United States History 1914-1945
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Rouse on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 121 at University of Kentucky taught by Lacey Sparks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see United States History 1914-1945 in History at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Week 4: the Armenian Genocide of 1915 Ultimate Extension of Total War Most extreme example of Brutalization: Turkish/Ottoman attempt to exterminate Armenian Christian minority Armenians o First to be converted to Christianity o Unique o Armenian Church keeps people together o Played important role in economy o Throughout Near East Mediterranean (Istanbul) Millet system o Ottoman protection o Return for taxes o Armenian is only non-Muslim system Growth of Nationalism affected Armenian and Turks Greeks armed revolt to independence Armenians copy Greece-organized political parties and militia Turkish movement to unify smaller states in fear of collapse Turkey had lack of industrial and military equipment Last sultan of Ottoman- Abdul Hammid II, ruled 1876-1908 Armenian was powerful minority since next to Russia to back it up Muslim refugees resented Result of massacre of Armenians by Abdul o 1894-95 o Punish of disloyalty o Raise tensions even further o Call to outside Christian empires Revolutionary movement in Turkey to get rid of Abdul called Movement of Young Turks to prove they could defend themselves (1908) Led Turkey into WWi 1914 Armenians welcomed Young Turks Young Turk leaders- Evner pasha and Talaat Pasha Adana Massacre o 1909 o Turks proved they could be as hostile o Armenian city Italy attacks Turkey in Libya in 1911 humiliating Turks Balkan Wars o 1913 o Bulgaria, Greece, Servia o Ganged up on Turks o Dreams of expansion causing War and Seize entire European territory Turkey enters with central powers WWI to avenge o Originally declared neutral o Pick winning side later could gain o Suffer defeat 1915 by Russians o Claimed defeated because Armenians betrayed them o Armenians welcomed Russia, but did not help them Turkey thought necessary to defeat Armenians close to front lines 1915- attack of Armenians o No distinction between soldiers and civilians o Sent on Death March oin Turkey o Plan to evacuate to servia o Surrounded columns, separated men who were massacred o Womena dn children had no power against them o Long barren march of hunger, thirst, heat, and diseae o Constantly harassed/ raped/ kidnapped o Children raised muslim Deported remaining Armenians 1915 Henry Morgenthou, US ambassador to Turkey o Documented reports o Sent telegrams to Washington describing massacres Press coverage of massacres Little outside countries could do Armenian resistence- Musa Dagh who rescued survivors Famous novel of massacre written by German: The Forty Days of Musa Dagh Children refugee in Lebanon 1920’s American-Armenians Consequence include revenge: Assassination of Talact Pasha in 1921 Pastuer Turkish government tried to make amends Kemal Ataturk o Turkey’s nationalist leader o Made modern Turkey o Viewed positively o Pretended no such thing has happened o Called it civil war o Successors continue this trend Centenial of Genocide o Campaign of recognition: forget me not flow is official symbol o Still alive today Genocide provided Hitler an example of total elimination of Jews WWII Your Death Would be mine Notes Italy goes to war surrounding Germany Foreign land causes loss of motication Bad mail system in Italy Fear of infidelity Italilan military isn’t as good Heavy censorship Paper shortages Postcards had picture of landmarks, not allowed to use due to location give- away Items were cheaper in Italy Still no bread Spanish flu epidemic/ spread by traveling Taboo subjects were starting to become more open Marie contracted exima, which symptoms resembled an STD Women cheating is much more frowned upon than men Class Notes Armenian Massacre- 1894-95 o Disloyalty o Ottoman Empire Turks were more hostile to Armenians because theu are under more pressur from Serbia and Bulgaria Turkey enters war to avenge against Russia Turkey was not prepared and tried to fight during winter- humiliating loss Gendarme o Armed guards “escorting” Armenians o Only a handful were there o Village people participated Didn’t revolt because they couldn’t go anywhere and they were unarmed Kidnapping of children, raising them as Turks, forgetting Armenian heritage Armenians have become scapegoats/ Turks are highly resentful Government is in fear of Nation dying
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