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CHEM 1030 Week 6 Notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

CHEM 1030 Week 6 Notes CHEM 1030

Marketplace > Chemistry > CHEM 1030 > CHEM 1030 Week 6 Notes
Alyssa Anderson
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These notes cover the material we went over in class 2/16/16 and 2/18/16 and include diagrams of ionization energy, electron affinity, etc.
Fundamentals Chemistry I
Dr. Streit
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1030 at a university taught by Dr. Streit in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
1 CHEM 1030 Week 6 Notes Ionization Energy- minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom in a gas phase, resulting in an ion (chemical species with net charge POSITIVE charge means it is a CATION A. Example: Na (g) —> Na (g) + e - B. Therefore, sodium has an ionization energy of 495.8 kJ/mol (first ionization energy of sodium). C. IE1(Na) which corresponds to the removal of the most loosely held electrons In general, as Z effncreases, ionization energy also increases Higher atomic radius = lower Z eff= lower ionization energy Lower energy = closer to the radius = more stable NOTE: removing a paired electron is easier because of the repulsion forces between 2 electrons NOTE: Removing electrons can lower energy IE 1alues for main group elements (kJ/mol) noted to the right 2 It is possible to remove additional electrons in subsequent ionizations, giving IE1, IE2,tc. It takes more energy 6o remove the 2nd/3rd/4th electrons because it’s harder to remove core electrons than valence electrons IE1(Mg) > IE (N1) because Mg is to the right so if it has a greater Z effnd more difficult to remove (496 kJ/mol < 738 kJ/mol) IE2(Na) > IE (M2) because the second ionization of Mg removes a valence electron where the second ionization of Na removes a core electron Electron affinity (EA) is the energy released when an atom in the gas phase accepts an electron Cl (g) + e —> Cl (g)- Like ionization energy, electron affinity increases from left to right across a period as Z effincreases NOTE: It’s easier to add an electron to an empty orbital than to add an electron into an full orbital 3 More than 1 electron may be added to an atom. O (g) + e^- —> O^ - (g) (EA = -141 kJ/mol) 1 O^ - + e^ - —> O^ 2- (g) (EA = -741 kJ/mol) 2 While many 1st electron affinities are positive, subsequent EA’s are ALWAYS NEGATIVE. Considerable forces must be used to overpower compulsion energy
 EA 1Si) > EA (A1) because Si is more to the right therefore it has a greater Z eff EA 1Si) > EA (P1 because even though P is more to the right it involves putting it in a 3p orbital. The energy it costs of PAIRING outweighs advantage of adding electrons to atoms with easier Z eff Metallic Character A. Metals tend to be shiny, lustrous, malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity B. They have low IE (because CATIONS) not ANIONS C. Many of the periodic trends of elements can be explained using Coulombs Law which states that the force (F) between two charged objects (Q1 and Q2) is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the distance (d) between the objects squared 4 Ions of main group elements- species with identical electron configurations to the noble gas to the right are called isoelectronic A. Common monatomic ions are arranged by their positions in the periodic table B. Exceptions: Mercury is actually a polyatomic ion (Hg ^2+ Electron Configuration of Ions A. Write the original configuration B. Add/remove to make appropriate number of electrons NOTE: A. Low electron affinity- hard to accept electrons B. High electron affinity- easy to accept electrons C. High ionization energy- hard to lose electrons D. Low ionization energy- easy to lose electrons E. Noble gases have lower ionization energies Ions of d-block elements A. Ions of d block elements are formed by removing electrons first from the shell with the highest value of n. (When you're removing electrons from the final configuration, you’re making it more stable by lessening the repulsion forces.) B. Always going to fill s first, then p. C. Exception: when you're trying to fill the p blocks 5 Worked example 4.8 : write the electron configuration for the following ions of d block elements A. Zn^2+ —> [Ar} 3d^10 B. Mn ^2+ —> Ar 3d^5 C. Cr ^3+ —> Ar 3d^5 Ionic radius- the radius of a cation or an anion (radius- distance between valence shell and nucleus) A. When an atom loses an electron to become a CATION, its radius decreases due in part to a reduction on electron-electron repulsions in the valence shell B. A significant decreases in radius occurs when ALL of an atoms valence electrons are removed C. When an atom gains one or more electrons and becomes an ANION, its radius increases due to increased electron-electron repulsions D. When referring to radius, a cation < neutral atom < anion Isoelectronic Series A. An isoelectronic series is a series of two or more species that have identical electron configurations but different nuclear charges B. Ionic radius and attraction force are difference C. Example: O^2- and F^- have the same electron configuration but difference attraction forces NOTE: stronger attraction forces make ionic radius shrink 6 Worked example 4.9- know how to rank them in order of increasing radius A compound is a substance composed of two or more elements combined in a specific ratio and held together by chemical bonds, such as salt (NaCl) and water (H20) Lewis dot symbols A. When atoms form compounds it is their valence electrons that actually interact B. A LDS consists of the elements symbol with dots Example: Boron —> 1s2/2s2/2p1 = 3 valence electrons (do not pair until needed) Carbon—> 4 valence electrons Nitrogen—> 5 valence electrons For main group metals such as Na the number of dots is the number of electrons that are lost For nonmetals in the second period the number of unpaired dots is the number of bonds the atom can form 7 Ions may also be represented by Lewis dot symbols (O^2-) which can be represented by writing the element with correct number of electrons then brackets with the charge on the outside Ionic bonding refers to the kind of bonding that includes oppositely charged ions.


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