Our Place in Nature from a Genetic Perspective
Our Place in Nature from a Genetic Perspective ANTHRO 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauri Schleicher on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 101 at Emory University taught by Dr. Stutz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Anthro 101 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Emory University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Our Place in Nature from a genetic perspective: Carlos LinneL looked at differences and similarities in how places look before genetics was a thing Species: separated by a reproductive barrier, which emerges when two species that may have a common ancestor separate and evolve differences thru accumulated mutations that are no longer able to produce a fertile offspring o Ex) horse and donkey=infertile mule o Accumulate changes over time through natural selection and mutations Classification: we’re descended froma common ancestor to all animals homo sapiens o The farther back we travel in time, the elss we know, but the number of ancestors increases to study the history of humanity, we study remains and the diversity in species of the present we’re the only hominid (human-like) creatures that exits today hominid by phenotype o subgroups=orangutan, apes, and humans o we share 98% of our DNA with the DNA of chimpanzees o humanity=the naked ape o DNA molecules=four chemical bases that create genetic code Codes for amino acids that control development passed on through generations Non-coding makes up 91% of our DNA o As mutations occur independently in different species, speciation occurs More DNA accumulated from our mother (mitochondrial/MT DNA) o Accumulation of differences (mutations)time for separation Chimps and bonobos have the most DNA in common with us o Human, chimp, bonobo, and gorilla=more similarities than with orangutans Hemoglobin can be used to calculate the time and which mutations took place (1.5 units ago/1 million years ago) o 7 units separate humans and apes humans are related to chimps and bonobos more than any are related to gorillas o diverged 5-7 mya, gorillas were 6-8, and orangutans were 12-16 mya chimps: manipulative use of culture o do stuff with stuff; different ways to do things in different areas all great apes modify tools to extract food and water o behaviors transmitted through learning like the “unfinished human” learn form mother (first five years) and social networks o use sex to reproduce o the more social they are, the better they are at using tools o both arbitrary and regional customs emerge bonobos: sex is great and used for fun o they have a lot of sex to build communities it happens with everyone at one time and it mediates competition for food they have no self-restraint o chimps and bonobos=separated by 2my The Early Human Niche animal carcass butcher hone marrow and brain extraction (rich in calories and fatty acids) digging for tools and with tools projectiles for hunting and defense stick carrying, baskets, and bags hammer and other tools used to crack nuts and seeds first “candidate” : o Homo habilis, associated with Olduwan technology (tools)in East Africa, 2.3 - 1.4 mya. Second “candidate” o Homo erectus o Appears in Africa 2mya o Acheulean technology and the use of fire o Similar body to ours, bigger brain size o Ex) Turkanya boy from Kenya and Java Man from East Africa o Fossils known from Africa, Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia o
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