Weekly Notes PSYCH 101-03
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Erffmeyer on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Robert Henderson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Learning and Memory • Perceptual Set- top-down processing: starts with expectations, the proximal stimulus has changed dramatically • Correcting for Context- “crash-blossoms”: the headline is really strange (ie. Violinists career blossomed) • Bottom-up Processing- using feature detectors but don't detect incorrect perception • Empiricism andAssociation ◦ John Locke: Writing during aristocracy controversy ◦ Tabula Rasa: “Blank-state”-Babies have a clean state of mind to learn from whereas we know things as we get older because of countless associations during life • Pavlovian-did studies on learning (from Russia) ◦ Studied dogs learning and collected digestive juices ◦ Simple associated learning “how dogs drool” ◦ Conditioned stimulus • Extinction- not erased just covered up resulting in conditioned inhibition • Pavlov'sAccount- the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus send out signals within the brain and if the conditioned is stimulated, it makes the unconditioned stimulus occur and send out waves causing the same reaction Conditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus • Kamin's “Blocking” Experiment ◦ Phase 1: CS → UCS (only light) ◦ Phase 2: CS1 and CS2 → UCS (light and sound) ◦ Phase 3: Test CS2Alone (sound only) ◦ Unconditioned stimulus needs to be mildly a surprise • Garcia-taste/learning aversion ◦ Animals tasted flavor leading to them getting sick ◦ Bright, Noisy, Tasty Water ◦ Animals quickly rejected the water A-V Taste Illness NONE X Pain X NONE • Taste aversion in children undergoing chemotherapy to specific tastes/flavors before illness • Humans have built in biases toward things that are dangerous (ie. Spiders, snakes, etc) ◦ not born with fear ◦ born with aversion that makes fear stronger • Simple forms of learning ◦ Habituation ◦ Classical Conditioning ◦ Operant Conditioning • Perception was massively influenced by learning and learning is a matter of creating associations among ideas as a direct result of experience. • More complex learning=more associations • Habituation: the decline in an organisms response to a stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar ◦ pay more attention to unfamiliar stimulus • Dishabituation: an increase in responding, caused by a change in something familiar • Unconditioned Response: a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior training • Conditioned Response: a response elicited by an initially neutral stimulus-conditioned stimulus is after it has been paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus ◦ Figure 7.4 in the textbook • Second-order conditioning can become fearful and may lead to phobias • Stimulus generalization- tendency for stimulus similar to those used during learning to elicit a reaction similar to the learned response • The greater the difference between the new stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus, the weaker the conditioned response will be • Discriminate: respond in a way that's guided by the stimuli in your view • Inhibitor-stimulus signaling that an event is not coming, which elicits a response opposite to the one that the event usually elicits • Associations can provide a basis for expectations • Blocking-Effect: result showing that an animal learns nothing about a stimulus if the stimulus provides no new information • Drug dependence/Drug Cravings: an inability to function without the drug and overwhelming desire for another dose • Instrumental Conditioning: a form of learning in which the participant receives a reinforcer only after performing the desired response ◦ the learning of new voluntary behaviors • The learning curve of cats in a box suggests that the cats learned to escape in small increments • Law-of-Effect: if a response is followed by a reward, that response will strengthen. If response has no reward, it will be weakened. • Skinner was one of the first theorists to insist on a sharp distinction between classical and instrumental conditioning. Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning • Builds on response that's automatically • Behaviors that appear to be voluntary triggered by a stimulus • Learning about the relation between a • Learning about the relation between response and a stimulus two stimuli • Positive CS tells the animals about the world and that no matter what the US is coming- the positive discriminate stimulus (S+) tells the animal about the impact of its own behavior (respond and get rewarded) • Once a response has been made, reinforcement will strengthen it • Shaping is accomplished by a little “coaching” using the method of successive approximations ◦ spoon and fork eating is a shaped behaviors • Reinforcement: encourages some responses, discourages others, and through shaping creates entirely new responses • The effectiveness of a reinforcement depends largely on what other rewards are available-behavioral contrast • Latent learning: learning that takes places without any corresponding change in behaviors • Predispositions put biological constraints on that species learning, governing what the species can learn easily and what it can learn only without difficulty • Learned taste-aversion is actually based on classical conditioning • Taste-aversion learning is just one example of prepared learning • Prepared learning: learning that occurs without extensive training because of an evolved predisposition to the behaviors • Learning depends on Neural Plasticity: the capacity for neurons to change the way they function as a result of experience • Some neurons send a stronger signal after learning • Some neurons become more sensitive to the signals they've been receiving • Learning can lead to the creation of entirely new connections among neurons allowing for new lines of communication within the nervous system Memory • People in the ancient world also relied on deliberate memorization strategies such as singing a song during battle to memorize instructions • We can get enormous amounts of information into our memories and later recall that information, however, sometimes we remember things that never happened at all • Memories blend together separate incidents • There are 3 aspects of memory process: acquisition, storage, and retrieval • Acquisition: you must learn something by putting information into your memory • Forgetting someone's name after just learning it is an example of failure of acquisition • Storage: an experience must leave some record in the nervous system • Record an also be called memory trace • Retrieval: draw information from storage and use it • Retrieval can come in a form known as recall which is when you retrieve information from memory in response to some cue or question • Recognition is another way to retrieve information from memory in which you're presented with a name, fact or situation and asked if you’ve encountered it before • Exams that use short answers emphasize recall, exams that utilize multiple choice emphasize recognition of the material Acquisition • Acquisition includes cases of intentional learning and incidental learning (learning that takes place without intention to memorize) • Acquisition requires some intellectual engagement with the material: the product of the engagement is then stored into the memory • Memory acquisition is understood as dependent on three types of memory which is called the stage theory of memory • Sensory memory: the first input, raw sensory form • Iconic memory: visual memory • Echoic memory: auditory inputs • Working memory is also known as short term memory because it is still in the process of being thought out • Long-term memory is all information that is not currently being used • Primacy effect: in free recall the tendency to recall the first items on the list more readily than those in the middle • Recency effect: the tendency to recall items at the end of the list more readily than those in the middle • There is a limit to how many items can be maintained in working memory • How recency effect works: Words from list enter mind → New words are shown and “bump out” the previous words. Only words at the end of list aren't bumped out due to the fact of no more newer words → last words are easier to recall because they are in working memory • Primacy effect utilizes long-term memory in order to remember the first words in a list sequence • Working memory capacity can be measured by chunks because what's in a chunk depend son how the person thinks about and organizes the information • Attention is what matters for memory • Memory requires attention and mental engagement with the target- not just mere exposure • Maintenance rehearsal: a mechanical process of repeating the memory items over and over, giving little thought to what the items are or whether they form any pattern • Maintenance rehearsal keeps the memory in working memory but not long term memory • Shallow processing: approach emphasizing the superficial characteristics of the stimulus • Deep processing: approach to the material that emphasizes what the stimulus means • Memory is promoted by finding the meaning-by gaining an understanding of the to-be- remembered materials • The better the understanding at the time the material was presented, the better the memory later on • Mnemonics: deliberate techniques that people use to help them memorize new materials ◦ connections between materials and the use of mental imagery • Mnemonics are good for memorization but not for understanding the concept Storage • Different aspects of an event are stored in different regions of the brain • Memory traces are not created instantly • Aperiod of time after a new experience is considered as memory consolidation in where memories are transformed from a transient and fragile status to a more permanent and robust state • During memory consolidation it allows adjustments in neural connections so that a new pattern of communication among neurons can created • Retrograde Amnesia:Aperson suffers a loss of memory for events that occurred before a brain injury, typically more recent memories • Older memories had enough time to consolidate so they are less vulnerable to disruption Retrieval • Retrieval of memories is crucial • Sometimes we can remember part of the information we're seeking, but we can't recall the rest • Tip-of-the-tongue effect: the condition in which one remains on the verge of retrieving a word or name but continues to be unsuccessful • Retrieval cue: hint or signal that helps one to recall a memory • Connections between memories follow retrieval paths-routes that lead you back to the desired information • The impact of retrieval cues are different if a person thought about meaning during learning • An effective retrieval cue is generally one that takes advantage of an already established connection in memory • Context reinstatement: a benefit of re-creating the state of mind you were in during learning • Areturn to the physical circumstances of learning does improve recollection • What matter for retrieval is your mental perspective not entirely the physical background • Encoding specificity: what's recorded in memory is not just a “copy” of the original, but is instead encoded from the original and is also quite specificity ◦ Has a powerful effect on retrieval • The encoding specificity proposal predicts that a memory hint was effective only if congruent with which was stored in memory • Encoding Specificity helps each person places their point of view into memory Memory Errors • Its almost always easier to recall more recent events • Recall decreases and forgetting increases is the retention interval that grows longer and longer • Memory declines with passage of time • Longer retention intervals will lead to more forgetting because longer intervals provide more opportunity for new learning • The mere passing of time accounts for very little; what really matters is the number of intervening events • The new material will lead to intrusion errors: mistakes about the past in which other information is mixed into your recall • Most often, intrusion involves information about an event that you learned only after the event was over • Misinformation effect: result of a procedure in which, after an experience, people are exposed to questions or suggestions that misrepresent what happened. • Intrusion errors can also come from another source because sometimes we blur together our recollection of an episode with our broader knowledge about the world • Memory is strongly affected by an individuals conceptual framework (participant's expectations what they see or think they hear) • These frameworks are known as schemas: mental representation that summarize what we know about a certain type of event or situation • Schemas provide a convenient summary of redundancy • Reliance on schematic knowledge can lead to substantial memory errors • Familiarity and recollection can be distinguished in many ways • Two types of memory feel different from each other • Familiarity and recollection can also be distinguished biologically ◦ activity in rhinal cortex=sense of familiarity ◦ activity in hippocampus=basis for recollection • During retrieval, familiarity and recollection both rely on the prefrontal cortex but depend on different areas within this cortex • Familiarity and recollection has many consequences including possibility of one process succeeding while the other fails • Evidence suggests that eye witness errors in the American court system may account for more false convictions than all other causes combined • We can improve memory by encouraging people to think more deeply about the materials they're encountering ◦ this will promote both understanding and memory • Hypnosis is used as an aid to memory even though it does, in fact, not help • Certain drugs are said to help improve memory when, in fact, they put the person into a more relaxed state causing them to talk more • If we rely on our confidence in deciding which memories to trust, we'll regularly accept false memories and reject true ones • False memories are essentially undetectable and unavoidable • There's reason to believe our memories function in just the way we want them to • Mechanisms leading to memory error are mechanisms that help us most of the time so errors can be looked at as the price we pay to gain other advantages • To avoid the errors, we would need to restrict the connections, however, if we did that we'd lose the ability to locate our own memories within long-term storage • Schemas guide our attention to what's informative in a situation, rather than what's self- evident • Without blurring together, our capacity for thinking in general terms might be dramatically impaired • Explicit memory: conscious memories that can be described at will and can be triggered by a direct question • Implicit memories: remnants of the past that we may recall but are unconsciously still with us ◦ cannot be revealed by direct questions; usually revealed by some sort of indirect test • Episodic memory: memory for specific events and experiences • Semantic memory: Memory that contains knowledge not tied to any place or time (also called generic knowledge) • Specific brain areas support episodic and semantic • Some forms of brain damage disrupt episodic memory but not semantic and vice versa • Separate brain systems are responsible for different types of knowledge so damage to a particular brain area disrupts one type of knowledge but not others • Autobiographical memory: memory that defines for each of us, who we are • Certain types of events are stored in specialized memory systems called flashbulb memories because vivid, detailed memories that are produced by past traumatic events • Emotional episodes tend to be better remembered more vividly, completely, and accurately • Various biological changes that accompany emotion play a role in facilitating the process of memory consolidation • Flashbulb memories are not immune to error and the longevity of flashbulb memories may be less extraordinary than it seems • Evidence suggests that traumatic events tend to be remembered accurately, and completely for many years • Some people who suffered a traumatic even can forget it due to extreme stress associated with the event is likely to have disrupted the biological processes needed to establish the memory in the first place • Some people have the defense of dissociation where the person tries to create a sense of “distance” between themselves and the horror • The risk of error is greater in remembering the distant past than it is in remembering recent events • We have no means of telling which memories are true and which are false • Anterograde Amnesia: apparent inability to form new memories • patients with anterograde amnesia can acquire certain types of new memories • Cases of implicit memory involve procedural knowledge rather than declarative knowledge • Procedural knowledge: knowledge of how to do something expressed in behaviors rather than words • Declarative knowledge: knowledge of information that can be expressed in words • Sentences heard before are more likely to be accepted true, so that in essence, familiarity increases credibility • Perceptual learning: learning that you need to do whenever you “recalibrate” your perceptual systems • Successive approximations: state with something simple and then gradually get harder ◦ Teaching dolphins new things ◦ Teaching machine by Skinner ◦ Lots of reinforcement in order to successively learn the skills • Avoidance learning: learning how to avoid something ◦ Example: rats inside a box with heat lamps and jumps up onto the ledge to escape the heart. Learns that the ledge, if he sits on it, no heat will come from the lamps. Rat learned to avoid the bottom of the box altogether • Agoraphobia: people who don't like to go out into the public-avoid leaving their homes and depend on others for grocery shopping, mailbox, etc. • Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition ◦ proved to be noneffective when trying to memorize something ◦ in memory long enough for you to utilize it (such as dialing a phone number) but not in your long term memory • There is a number limit as to how much we can hold things in short term memory maintenance rehearsal ◦ most people remember between 5 and 9 items ◦ known as 7 plus-or-minus 2 • Elaborate rehearsal: elaborating a pattern (such as a pattern in a song) • Interactive Imagery: perform vivid images of 2 items but force them to interact ◦ can be bizarre images or normal but the more bizarre the images the more they'll interact and stay in your memory ▪ Example: bald eagle and locomotive • Method of Loci ◦ Loci= places ◦ State with a place really familiar to you to use the organization already in your head to organize new and incoming information • Synesthesia: experience something and then experience something in another way (another, different sense) • Rhythm and Rhyme: ◦ Example: introducing yourself using your own words and words that “rhyme” with your name • Prospective memory: want to remember something at a particular place and time ◦ Example: remember a list at a job interview but not at a grocery store ◦ Uses interactive imagery and retrieval cues to remember later on when needed • Peg words: associate a number with a word, when someone gives you a list, interact the first word with the first word of the peg list and so on ◦ interacting with things and not locations like during the method of loci • Meaningful Surrogates: replaces something else ◦ Example: Kingdom Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Spectes ▪ King Philip Comes Over For Good Soup ▪ Keep Putting Condoms On For Safety • Substitution: useful for memorizing large string of numbers • Chunking: grouping information together ◦ Example: Groceries → Family Reunion by amount of families/people ◦ Converting from binary number into decimal number • Linking: linking the things trying to learn with something you already know (particularly to something personal to you) • Deep processing: dive into words and ask questions about it to remember more about the word ◦ Example: RAIN 1. Look at word 2. Know how word sounds 3. What does the word mean? • Discovering organization: organization of material: concept maps, outlines, etc. ◦ How would I organize this? • Imposing Organization ◦ organize information that is useful to you-not to what others prefer • Precise Elaboration: elaborate to link in a meaningful and very precise way ◦ Example: Fat, Sign ◦ The FAT man read the SIGN that was posted on a tree. ◦ The FAT man read the SIGN that warned the ice was thin. ◦ Unintended vs. Intentional learning • Iconic/ Sensory Memory ◦ Sensory Memory Sensory Memory → Working Memory/ Short-Term Memory → Long-Term Memory ← • Short-term memory confusion errors related to the sound of word • Long-term memory confusion errors related to the meaning of the word • Primacy Effect=Long-term memory • Recency Effect=Short-Term memory
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