The Biological Legacy
The Biological Legacy ANTHRO 101
Popular in Anthro 101
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauri Schleicher on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 101 at Emory University taught by Dr. Stutz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Anthro 101 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Emory University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
The Biological Legacy: Feb. 10 We’re dependent on culture for our own survival, unlike other creature Look at the picture of evolution (the one where we start as ape-like creatures)—the end product is man as we exist today, which may not be the ultimate end product Understanding our cultural capacities as a product of basic evolution and understanding there’s a biological continuum is key We’re not the purpose of evolution, but a single product of it We’ve underestimated the complexity of nonhuman organisms as calling them primitive The 19 century marked a migration to cities (demographic explosion) and belief in constant change and progress o Era of imperialism and colonization The world is coming into contact with human difference Ethnocentrism: people think their culture is dominant, therefore hierarchical thinking and racism emerge Darwin’s origin of species changed out people and cultures viewed themselves ideal image became the European white male Challenge the idea of a divine creator Image of God by William Blake: God created us as imperfections by using his left hand Challenged idea of “types” and fixed/permanent species o We’re in constant flux, there’s no permanent form of existence Humanity was given a biological history (not just got plopping is down there were older species of humanity that eventually formed us from neandrathols) Population thinking replaced by typological thinking Changed how people viewed their place in the world Darwin’s ideas formed on his trip to the Galapagos (biodiversity) o Variation of finches’ bills All of these weren’t born this way—they evolved to become successful on their own island o 4 central principles 1. nonconstancy of species: the diversity of life does not follow a static organizing order; life is always evolving, sometimes adding or pruning away from diversity 2. the notion of branching evolution we’re a common species in the sense that we branch from a common ancestor 3. evolution is gradual 4. the mechanism for evolution is natural selection a. survival of the fittest/most beneficial to the location b. central concept=inheritance i. geniation: we are generations of indelible and microscopic instructions ii. variation among species and from generation to generation 1. necessary for natural selection natural selection: those with better fit instructions will survive and reproduce in greater numbers o ex) green bugs=good to eat, so orange bugs become greater in abundance o 2 steps are necessary 1. production of variation (chance) 2. selection from the variation o evidence of natural selection it’s the best model to explain adaptiveness it’s been simulated and observed o limits of natural selection it must act on existing variation directional selection only acts to increase fitness it must respect physical and developmental constraints some evolutionary changes aren’t the outcome of natural selection Darwin’s formula for diversification o Variation typological thinking had determined clear boundaries with different “essences” (i.e. a color wheel) By stressing variation, boundaries are broken—no clear color wheel, but they all blend Racism biologically cannot exist because of the lack of clear boundaries Variation is nonessential and accidental D: individuals in a population vary from one another o inheritance: parents pass on their traits to their offspring genetically o selection: some variants reproduce more than others o time-successful variations accumulate over many generations
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