Psych 2300 Chapter 5 Notes
Psych 2300 Chapter 5 Notes Psyc 2010-003
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alise Robison on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Chong Hyon Pak in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 5 Developmental Psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span Prenatal Development Conception: a single sperm penetrates the outer coating of an egg and fuses to form one fertilized cell Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogen: “monster maker” agents; chemicals or viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm o Smoking, alcohol, Zika virus, flu virus Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. o As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner o Visual preference suggests infants, like adults, focus first on the face and not the body o We prefer sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information o Mental molds into which we pour our experiences Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Two processes allow infants to gain new knowledge o Assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas o Accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) o The stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities o Out of sight/reach, out of mind o Learning by conducting experiments to understand time, space, and causality o End of stage is object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Preoperational Stage (2-7) o The stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic o Begin to understand, create, and use symbols to represent things that aren’t present (a picture of mom represents mom) o Begin to make intuitive guesses about the world and how things work o Thinking is dominated by things they can see o Highly egocentric: in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty in taking another’s point of view What they perceive is what everyone else perceives Think they are center of universe Lack a “theory of mind”: ability to understand another’s mental state; people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states—feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict o Don’t understand conservation: that principle Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects Concrete Operational Stage (7-11) o The stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events o Start to use logical rules to guide reasoning o Can start mentally transforming information o Cognition is no longer dominated by what is seen, but still is limited to concrete objects o Cant think about hypothetical or abstract things o Diminished egocentrism Formal Operational Stage (12+) o The stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts o Emergence of ability to engage in hypothetical and abstract thinking o Scientific reasoning develops o Abstract thinking ability leads to self awareness and self consciousness o Self-concept: our understanding and evaluation of who we are Think about themselves and their place in this world Discover individual identity o Coincides with “rebellious” adolescent phase o Abstract thinking leads to two cognitive distortions Adolescent egocentrism: everyone is looking at me Personal fable: nobody understands me o Allows moral reasoning Social Development Stranger anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning around 8 months of age Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by seeking closeness to caregiver and showing distress on separation Parent-infant attachment: a deep, affectionate, close, enduring relationship between a parent and infant Origin of attachment: infants bond with mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment Critical period: an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Basic trust: according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be performed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Self concept: our understanding and evaluation of who we are Types of Attachment Secure attachment: the infant’s urge to be close to the mother is balanced by their urge to explore their environment Insecure attachment: the infant is avoidant; ignore or avoid the mother when she returns after a brief separation Ambivalent: upset when she leaves, then angry and rejects her when she returns Disorganized: the child’s behavior is inconsistent, disturbed, and disturbing When placed in a strange situation, 60% of kids express secure attachment, where they explore the environment happily and get distressed without their mom The other 30% showed insecure attachment, clinging to their mom and less likely to explore their environment Parenting Styles Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience (strict, punishing, unsympathetic) Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires, making few demands and using little punishment (complete freedom, little discipline) Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but explain the reason for the rules, encouraging open discussion when making rules to allow exceptions Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence Physical Development Adolescence begins with puberty o Puberty: the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Females reach puberty around age 11, males age 13 o This explains the height difference, females grow taller before males Primary sex characteristics: the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics: non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Menarche: the first menstrual period Cognitive Development Frontal cortex o Increased myelination (insulation laid on neurons to increase speed of transmission) o Frontal cortex lags behind the limbic system’s development o Hormonal surges, limbic system, and underdeveloped frontal cortex may explain poor teen judgment Reasoning power and morality o According to Piaget, adolescents can handle abstract problems o Can judge good from evil, truth and justice, and think about God in deeper terms o Kohlberg posed moral dilemmas (kids and adolescents) and found stages of moral development Ex: “should he steal medicine to save his wife’s life?” Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Thinking o Preconventional: focuses on self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards Before age 9 “If you save your wife, you’ll be a hero.” o Conventional: focuses on upholding laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order Early adolescence “If you steal the drug, everyone will think you are a criminal.” o Postconventional: focuses on actions that reflect belief in basic rights and self-denied ethical principles Adolescence and beyond “People have a right to live.” Personal standards/principles of justice, equality, and respect for human life Each breaks down into two separate stages Limitations: o In cross cultural studies, stages 1-4 appear universal, but stages 5 and 6 don’t always appear Gender differences o Men: more abstract, impersonal concept o Women: protecting enduring relationships and fulfilling human needs Social Development Identity: our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles Social identity: the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships Intimacy: in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood Adulthood Emerging adulthood: for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood Although it begins after the mid-twenties, its hard to pinpoint Physical Development Peak of physical performance declines for most after their twenties Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities, and cardiac output begin to decline around middle adulthood Menopause: the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines Old age: sensory abilities decline (sight, smell, hearing) Cognitive Development Recognition memory doesn’t decline o Given a multiple choice test, you can recognize the answer Recall memory does decline o Given an essay test, you can recall the answer Fluid: ability to reason speedily declines (frontal lobes decrease) Crystalline: accumulated knowledge and skills does not decline Gain vocab and knowledge but lose recall memory and process more slowly Cross-sectional studies: a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal study: research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Social Development Social clock: the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement Love: intimacy, attachment commitment—love by whatever name—is central to healthy and happy adulthood Work: job satisfaction and life satisfaction
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