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Chapters 3-4 Nutrition 109

by: Donnetta Shanklin

Chapters 3-4 Nutrition 109 nutrition 109

Donnetta Shanklin
GPA 3.7

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Detailed notes of chapters 3-4. They can be a little tricky, so there are some examples to go along with definitions. Enjoy!
Nutrition 109
Mr. Gurzell
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donnetta Shanklin on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to nutrition 109 at Western Illinois University taught by Mr. Gurzell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 109 in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Western Illinois University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Nutrition Chapter 3: The Remarkable Body      Body Structure    ­ In the body, your cells are what makes up the tissue in you  ­ From that, your tissue makes up you an organ  ­ Lungs work with Larynx to breathe   ­ If you’re missing 1 organ, you’ll most likely die    What Makes Up Everything?  ­ Bodily fluids  ­ When you run, CO2 is working, you breathe Oxygen to your lungs, you breathe in white  blood cells that get rid of wastes  Lymph Nodes  ­ When you have an infection in mouth, lymph nodes will get swollen  1. You have lymph nodes all throughout your body    Major Role Of Blood  ­ To bring oxygen into the body, carry out CO2 out   a. Your heart goes (thun thun thun thun)  b. When you run, blood pumps faster  c. Blood to heart, heart to lungs    How Does One Literally Lose Weight?  ­ when they burn calories and/or work out, they actually breathe away fatty tissue  a. You actually produce an lactic acid that causes the legs/arms to burn  b. It then carries waste to the liver/kidneys     The Immune System  ­ we rely on our Immune cells to recognize foreign “stuff” when you’re sick  ­ Immune system causes inflammation  1. Ex: Influenza Flu  a. You want and need a fever  b. You want your Immune system to activate  2. Allergies are often the Immune system failing  a. When one eats a peanut, no reaction  b. If you’re allergic, that means your Immune system is failing            Chapter 4: Carbs, Sugar,Starch,Glycogen, And Fibers    Mono vs Di vs Polysaccharides     ­ mono and di: how much sugar is in something  ­ poly: tons of sugar units put together  ­ when glucose is in us, we store it by Glycogen  ­ more sugar than we can handle? Then sugar turns into fat  ­ once it’s stored as fat, it can’t go back to sugar.    White vs Wheat   1. White Bread  a. you get rid of all the bran in the bread  b. fiber, vitamins, and minerals are lost  2. 100% whole wheat  a. you should consume this over white bread  b. has more key nutrients  c. less sweet than white bread  d. reduces the spiking of the blood sugar    Fiber And Its Role  ­ if we can slow down digestion (fiber), than blood sugar levels regulate  ­ more fiber= fill full longer  ­ the way we process foods makes the fiber intake to be different  ­ if you can’t digest fiber, bacteria can  ­ when you eat food, you breathe out gas  ­ fiber can cause bloating and gas  ­ if you gradually eat fiber, you will get used to is (less gas)  ­ dairy and meat do not contain fiber  ­ plants and beans contain a lot of fiber  ­ brown rice has more fiber than white rice  ­ fiber lowers cholesterol and heart disease  ­ high fiber diet means you get rid of bile and you start over    Insulin  ­ when you eat something high in sugar or sugar in general, you blood sugar level (blood  glucose) will go up  ­ insulin tells  the tissue to regulate back to a normal pattern  ­ eventually you will level back out  ­ cotton candy and/or soda spikes blood sugar  ­ beans cause the blood sugar to stay steady      Blood Sugar  ­ After sugar gets into the body, when it gets to the liver and what not, they are checking  the glucose  ­ there is glucose,fructose, and galactose  ­ two hormones that make your blood change:insulin and glucagon  ­ insulin causes it to go down, glucagon makes it regulate  ­ insulin signals the skeletal muscle and adipose (take up glucose)  ­ glucagon signals to liver and skeletal muscle and breaks down glycogen and release  glucose in the blood    The Glycemic Index   ­ A way of categorizing foods based on how fast they raise blood sugar  ­ high index is in fruit juice and white bread  ­ low is in beans and whole fiber grains  1. you eat a meal,digest, and absorb carbs  a. pancreas releases insulin  b. muscle and liver store excess glucose as glycogen  c. adipose stores excess energy as adipose  2. you haven’t eaten for awhile  a. blood sugar goes down  b. pancreas to glucagon   c. signals to the liver  d. liver releases stored glycogen as glucose in the blood    Diabetes  ­ deficient/deficient signaling of insulin  ­ 3 types  1. Autoimmune (Type I)  a. never able to make insulin  b. can still respond to insulin, but can’t produce it  2. Insulin Resistance  ​(Type II)  a. tissues ignore insulin signaling  b. has insulin, but doesn’t respond    ­ a Type I who eats without getting insulin causes their blood sugar to spike and stay high  ­ a Type II eats, they’re able to produce insulin, but they tend to ignore it  a. to some extent, you can insert insulin, but it won’t do anything most likely  ­ Type I can’t control it, but Type II can change it if they exercise and eat right  ­ simply being active raises insulin  ­ requires a dramatic lifestyle change        Lactose Intolerance  ­ Lactose breaks down lactose  ­ lowers levels of lactase to break down lactose  ­ leads to increase of lactose carried to the large intestine  ­ carries water   ­ bacteria ferments the lactose  ­ creates gas  ­ diarrhea: you can’t break down lactose, lots of water and sugar goes to bacteria and  large intestine   ­    


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