Class Note for C&PE 624 at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
CampPE 624 Plant amp Environmental Safety CLASS CALENDAR 2009 40609 Note The Objectives for CampPE 624 are published in the Introduction The Objectives for the Day address these Student evaluation is based on the Objectives for CampPE 624 w M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems 116 F l I View sequence of a Motivation Your Plant Your Assignment 1 for Examination 1 Safety takes you to a new level of disaster 2 View impact on labor and society 3 Evaluate opinions expressed Design Your People Your Environment 231307155 understanding It is rooted in the chemical engineering fundamentals Chemical engineering is not magic lt vitally critical that you use the fundamentals to determine the sequence of events from an initiating event to the termination You must be able to know and describe the integration of the fundamentals during the excursion You cannot protect a plant unless you understand the hazard and the sequences under which it might escape You have received a CD of all the lecture materials that Will form the foundation of this course You have the paper from the Conference on Chemical Process Safety Scan each lecture and determine Where it fits in the organization of this class as given in the paper It is important to understand that companies do not want accidents The safety of the plant is paramount But unforeseen sequences of events lead to accidents This is an argument for M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems implementing Process Safety Management 119 M No class Martin Luther King Day 121 W 1 Understand answers to Motivation Design a Batch questions posed to CSH Polymerization Reactor 2 Evaluate suggestions to improve CSH teaching to improve learning 3 Develop process design for polymerization 123 F 4 I Analyze Reactor Excursion Motivation Analyze a Batch 1 If the process design isn t I Analyze Reactor Excursion 2 Evaluate safety systems Polymerization Reactor finished finish it 2 Evaluate safety systems 2 Develop the control scheme 3 Analyze how the process behaves 126 M 5 I Apply the standards ofAPI Loss Prevention Video You must be able to break an event 750 to determine whether it applies 2 Evaluate the di erences between API 750 and OSHA Process Hazards Management Requires work outside of class 3 Develop hierarchy for analyzing potential excursion impacts Process Hazards Management API 750 Recommended Practice down into identifiable steps You will see examples on this tape of the eleven parts to API 750 Explain each in your own words Make sure that you understand the stepwise event process that is discussed in class It is important to know the initial state of the system It is important to know the chemical physical and equipment states of the system These should be known prior to the exploration of the initiating event and the sequence of steps that arise from it Suppose you had a tank of hot oil to which water was inadvertently added Suppose that the tank contained 100000 gallons of oil Could you estimate the water vaporization as a function of the oil temperature Could you calculate the size of the vent required for this compared to the size required for a specified pumping inlet M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems 128 W 6 1 Practice and re ne Loss Prevention Video Explain why multiple step batch process hierarchy for analyzing Process Hazards Management may be better handled from an inherent potential plant excursion API 750 Recommended Practice safety point of view in multiple impacts sequential vessels than in a single vessel 2 Practice applying the with all steps conducted in that vessel eleven API 750 steps 3 Develop team interaction What would be the drawback of using skills to identify impending multiple vessels What would be the excursion drawback if the material being handled 4 Recognize that a is toxic Corrosive Flammable structured approach is necessary 5 Apply method to real life examples 130 F 7 Examination 1 The near hit assignment is particularly Based on Assignment 1 important and it is easy to blow off assignments under Assignment When you analyze your near hits for and thought problems your group attempt to group them in four categories You of course develop the categories You will use those categories to subsequently analyze chemical plant accidents I strongly disagree with conclusions that near hits students encounter are unforeseen or Acts of God Many times students have suggested that the events were not their fault This conclusion is a trap I also disagree with the conclusions that some students draw that they suffer no near hits I suspect those were looking for 39big39 events and overlooking the ones that have been accepted as normal daily activity and experience It is these normal ones that will lead to a large event Please keep your eyes open 202 M 8 1 Understand that Sequence Analysis in Accident Assignment 2 for Examination 2 You must be able to break an event Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems unforeseen circumstances are di icult to protect against 2 Develop safeguards based on chemical properties 3 Develop PampI associated with equipment Investigation down into identifiable steps You will see examples on the tape of the eleven parts to API 750 Explain each in your own words Make sure that you understand the stepwise event process that was discussed in class 1 De ne the system 2 De ne the characteristics ofthe system 3 De ne the initial condition 4 Establish and understand the equipment characteristics 5 Establish the methodology and scenario used to design the layers of protection within the system de nition 6 Establish the initiating event and the potential consequence 7 Trace the initiating event through the process to determine whether the consequence occurs 204 1 Understand that unforeseen circumstances are di icult to protect against 2 Develop safeguards based on chemical properties 3 Develop PampI associated with equipment Sequence Analysis in Accident Investigation cont This discussion is based on Bhopal It also forms the basis for the beginning of examining plant operations beyond intended performance The assignment asks you to develop the full engineering flow diagram for a Bhopallike storage tank While recognizing that we could invoke inherent safety concepts they did not formally exist at the time How much of the equipment in your drawing is dedicated to intended operation and how much is dedicated to startup shutdown excursions and keeping hazards contained 205 Design 11 Problem Starts Good luck and good designing 206 10 1 Develop a structured approach to identi l hazards 2 Understand that hazards Hazard Identi cation HazOp Introduction Society has become inundated with instant information retrieval WhenI walked into class I intended to discuss M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems and the release thereof may HazOp But you being informed of the not be understood developing situation in Kansas City told 3 Understand that the me about the fire We tuned into the live approach will lead to the reporting and video as the event identify signi cant risks occurred There was not vetting of the 4 Analyze the media information by the reports reporting in realtime of a meteorologists fire chief expert or poorly understood event public We were fed the information as fact instantly How do you vet the information How does the public Are we trained to filter andor evaluate information that is fed instantly A text message implies a need for an instant response But a technical excursion may take weeks months or years to understand Are you prepared to study a situation for a long period evaluate a variety of hypotheses and arrive and confident solution If so where were you trained to do this 209 M 11 1 Examine media reporting Hazard Identi cation HazOp Consider this event The technical of an event 2 Compare to the technical evaluation in hindsight 3 Evaluate the inadequacy of public response 4 Understand that releases can be caused by unforeseen sequences aspect is fairly straightforward in hindsight but is it in the reporting What does the public know How would you communicate as the technical expert at the time Was the public s response valid Did it accomplish anything Consider the response of the public to this incident Was it fomented by the media What was their role Who won in this situation How would you handle a situation such as this Loss of public trust and goodwill is difficult from which to recover It s been said that it takes a lifetime to build a reputation and fifteen minutes to destroy it How would you minimize the M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems damage How should a crisis be managed 211 W 12 1 Develop skill at examining Hazard Identi cation HazOp We are looking to define hazards and a plant under excursion develop paths sequences for their 2 Recognize the role ofa escape This is not a trivial task All too structured approach to often we as engineers put on blinders to subjecting a plant to what is actually in our plant Consider deviations your unit ops lab What are the hazards 3 Develop con dence that How can they escape Have you ever the method will lead to the smelled or seen a release Did you identi cation of high risk consider whether this was harmful Do events your actions preparation or lack thereof increase the frequency of release Why 213 F 13 Examination 2 Assignment 3 for Examination 3 216 M 14 1 Practice structured Hazard Identi cation HazOp Make sure you read the ValuIet As part of Assignment 2 l have asked methodology to identify hazards and propose how they may be released 2 Practice methodology of using chemical engineering fundamentals to propagate a sequence from initiating event deviation to consequence 3 Begin to think in cause consequence pairs 4 Recognize that this methodology is an extension of the problem solving skills developed and practiced in Design I article Relate the discussion to what you know about the Chemical Process Industries that you look at my workshop that proposes teaching Safety as Capstone Design In that workshop 1 list the accepted causes of accidents lthen re grouped them into three Two are of importance to us high reliability and normal Based on the lecture discussing these two and supplemental information that you can find make sure you develop an essay in three pages or less that justifies this consolidation Do not worry about inevitable Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems 218 15 I Consider the implications of complex systems 2 Reflect upon the ability to see all possible sequences 3 Understand the requirements of designing operating and maintaining a highly reliable system 4 Compare those requirements to the typical characteristics of human systems 5 Understand that cause consequence scenarios are di icult to interpret while they are occurring 6 Understand the motivation for inherent safety Accident Prevention System Theories High Reliability System Theory v Normal Error System Theory What does tightly coupled mean What do integrated operations mean Develop an example of the former Draw a flowsheet of the latter 2 20 16 No Class 7 Engineering Expo 223 17 1 Understand that even in relatively simple slow moving sequences unforeseen connections can be made 2 Understand that there is a rolefor both HRST andIS ValuJet Incident IS and LOPA are critical to Design II Read the Inherent Safety Lecture Refresh your memory on the checklists given for the various phases of design development 225 18 1 Understand thatHazOp results may require further analysis 2 Understand that we must examine signi cant cause consequence pairs to determine whether the risk is acceptable 3 Recognize that we are interested in controlling the hazard at thispoint in the development Layer of Protection Analysis Topic Altered to Ethical Dilemma Safety Culture and Ethical Behavior in Real Practice We have now identified hazards We have speculated about possible paths that these might escape It is now time to consider whether there is sufficient risk to merit changing the design and operation What type of consequences might we experience What are the necessary conditions for a scenario Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems 4 T his focus limits our analysis once the hazard escapes 5 Recognize that full risk assessment may examine conditional modi ers 227 19 Examination 3 Assignment 4 for Test 4 302 20 1 Practice evaluating the consequence of a scenario 2 Practice evaluating the initiating event frequency of a scenario 3 Understand the signi cance of an enabling event 4 Understand the seven criteria to classi l a safeguard as a layer of protection 5 Recognize that LOPA is conservative 6 Recognize that risk can be evaluated against tolerable criteria Layer of Protection Analysis Would the acceptable risk criteria be the same for all industries How might they change 304 21 I Recognize that an accident is a sequence of events many of which could have followed a di erence path to termination 2 Recognize that people closest to the event may not have the authority to respond a necessary aspect of HRST 3 Recognize that process designs may not inherently anticipate an accident scenario Piper Alpha Sequence It is important to understand that companies do not want accidents The safety of the plant is paramount But unforeseen sequences of events lead to accidents This is an argument for implementing Process Safety Managem ent Prepare an Event Tree of the Piper Alpha incident as best you can describe the sequence of events What broke down in the process safety management system Where did High Reliability System Theory break down Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems 4 Recognize that Management of Change may not be properly implemented and the installation updated 5 Recognize that well developed lock out tag out work order procedures can break down 306 22 No class Design Problem Due Tomorrow 309 23 1 Develop the skill to picture and event as a sequence of successesfailures 2 Develop the skill to assign and evaluate probabilities to a sequence 3 Recognize that this method does not anticipate acts of commission during a sequence Event Tree Development You re on the board Alarms start to sound breaking your reverie of talking about hunting fishing and golf What do you do How long do you have What procedure will you invoke to resolve the problem to the extent that it exists 311 24 Examination 4 Assignment 5 for Test 5 313 25 No Class 316 No Class 7 Spring Break 318 No Class 7 Spring Break 320 No Class 7 Spring Break 323 amaze 26 I Recognize the di erence between inductive analysis and deductive analysis 2 Practice developing a deductive fault tree 3 Recognize the nonunique nature of the methodology Event Tree Analysis 325 27 1 Understand the deductive nature ofFTA 2 Identify a top event 3 Use logic to identi l the Class Postponed for Project 1 Preparation This methodology requires an integrated view of the operation and the supporting chemical engineering fundamentals It requires us to organize our thoughts M E Objectives for the Day Lecture Topics Assignment N otesSpecial Thought Problems General Learning Objectives Examinations based on these Examinations based on these thought assignments problems rst layer contributing to the more thoroughly than we might using an top event inductive approach like ETA or the 4 Develop minimum cut sets simpler LOPA 327 F 28 1 Examine a sequence to Project 1 Review Summary This procedure was developed to assist nd the most signi cant Presentations operators during normal operation It is place to interrupt the Project 1 Due Today Beginning espousedby Simulation Solutions But sequence with the greatest of Class the acronym of REACT can be impact extended to the analysis of any plant 2 Examine a sequence to operation whether under excursion develop layers of protection analysis or not It can also be extended and analyze those layers in to analyzing process designs in design other sequences mode Of course some of the aspects 3 Examine the speci cation increase or decrease in importance of consequence to identify depending upon the application layers of protection 330 M 29 1 Examine a sequence when Event Tree Analysis When do you avoid heroic efforts and troubleshooting to Fault Tree Analysis shut the plant down When is it understand plant operations warranted When should you wait out under excursion the excursion These are difficult questions These are difficult questions to answer when alarms are sounding and pressure is on to bring the plant back Should this be practiced before the event occurs How does troubleshooting fit into high reliability system theory 401 W 30 I Recognize that no PSM or Fault Tree Analysis Where does LOPA ETA and FTA fit PHA will be successful into HRST What aspects don t these without the appropriate cover Are there other developments culture that we need to pursue in order to 2 Recognize that the culture develop a HRST development is an aspect of HRST 3 Recognize that the absence of safety culture will compromise the LOPA ETA and F TA 403 F 31 Examination 5 Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems 406 32 1 Examine past events for a breakdown in the culture 2 Examine personal near hit experiences to evaluate the adherence to culture development and maintenance Safety Culture Development Do the other causes for accidents address particular shortcomings in HRST that need to be addressed in the same manner that Culture specifically addresses the requirement that there is a high priority on safety One aspect worth considering is organizational learning How does the organization learn 408 33 Relief Valve Fundamentals and Placement The differences between rating and design are particularly important in safety analysis In design mode an engineer specifies what she wants The equipment and specifications are adjusted to give the engineer the desired performance For example in design mode an engineer might specify the outlet temperature from a heat exchanger and back calculate utility conditions heat exchanger orientation and required area to give that outlet temperature In rating mode the engineer gets what the equipment is capable of Using the above the exchanger is in place with fixed area and orientation The outlet conditions are what the area is capable of giving 410 34 Relief Valve Fundamentals Project 2 has the potential for excursions You have proposed a external cooling loop for your reactor What are the limitations of this type of cooling How will it respond under excursion Will it remove the heat of reaction under runaway 413 35 Project 2 Simulation Considerations Now consider specifically your reactor You have done a series of HazOp s You have done a series ofLOPA s You Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems know which of the terminal events presents the highest consequence You know which initiating events have the highest frequency How will you know whether you will need to invoke an IPL for any given scenario not from a LOPA standpoint but from an actual operating excursion standpoint 415 36 Project 2 Simulation Considerations Frequently the last line of defense is the safety or reliefvalve This may be pressure or vacuum relief This may be a rupture disk or a combination of the relief valve and rupture disk If we remove valve from the description these may be explosion panels Where do we put them How many What size How do we know they work How do we know they will be able to handle the situation when it presents itself 417 37 Examination 6 4 20 ET 38 Where do we get the relief scenarios What limitations do these impose 4 22 39 Video Deadly Dust You have spent your entire career at KU looking at liquids and gases But there is a large segment of the industry treating solids Your semester project in Design H dealt implicitly with dust from the coal processing In many ways this is a more insidious problem than that posed by liquids and gases With what should we be concerned 424 40 Plant Visit Bayer Agricultural Chemical Kansas City Missouri Depart 1145 We have spent substantial time on high reliability system theory and the requirem ents for implem entation We also discussed the limitations of HRST We have discussed Inherent Safety Date E Objectives for the Day General Learning Objectives Lecture Topics Assignment Examinations based on these assignments N otesSpecial Thought Problems Examinations based on these thought problems something you need to consider for Project 2 We have discussed how IS translates into LOPA Is our LOPA compromised when we make modifications to the process to respond to LOPA recommendations In other words how is risk compromised when we implement changes intended to reduce risk 427 41 T BA 429 42 T BA 501 123 43 Examination 7 Project 2 Due 504 44 Class Presentations Safety and Design Class Periods These presentations can be of any form You may produce videos slides plays skits etc There are no limitations Have fun with this You may find that the audience will be engaged and responsive 506 45 Closure Overview 508 gt11 Stop Day