New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 4 The Integumentary System

by: Jaime Dolan

Chapter 4 The Integumentary System 623359

Marketplace > penn state berks > Professional Education Services > 623359 > Chapter 4 The Integumentary System
Jaime Dolan
penn state berks

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Main points of Chapter 4
Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease
Dr. John Grandizio
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease

Popular in Professional Education Services

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 623359 at penn state berks taught by Dr. John Grandizio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease in Professional Education Services at penn state berks.


Reviews for Chapter 4 The Integumentary System


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 4 The Integumentary System  ­The integumentary system is composed of the skin, hair, nails, and cutaneous glands. Anatomy of the Hair, Skin, and Nails ­The skin is the largest organ of the body. ­It is composed of two layers the epidermis, and the dermis.  ­The dermis is loose/ areolar connective tissue over dense irregular connective tissue. ­The hypodermis is adipose connective tissue, it is not part of the skin, but it attaches the skin to  the body. Epidermis  ­The stratum basale is composed of keratinocytes and melanocytes. ­This stratum actively divides to make a new epidermis. ­The stratum spinosum and granulosum are superficial to the basale. ­The stratum lucidum is found only in thick skin.  ­The stratum corneum is composed of dead keratin filled cells.  Keratinocytes  ­Make up the majority of epidermal cells. ­Grow and divide pushing the older cells up toward the surface. ­Produce and fill themselves with keratin (a hard, waterproof protein) as they move forward the  surface. ­Stratum corneum contains Keratinocytes that have completely filled with keratin and died.  ­This process is called cornification. Melanocytes  ­Produce skin pigment called melanin. ­Cells stay in the stratum basale. ­Melanocytes may not be evenly distributed across the skin, and denser patches of these cells  account for freckles and moles. Tactile Corpuscles  ­Receptors for fine touch (epidermis).  ­Found in the stratum basale associated with nerve cells in the underlying dermis. Dendritic Cells  ­Immune system cells found in the stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum. ­Alert the body’s immune system to the invasion of pathogens (disease­causing foreign invaders) that make it through the stratum corneum.  Dermis ­The dermis contains papillae, fibers, nerve endings, cutaneous glands, and hair follicles.  ­Papillae ­Conelike projections of dermis that fit into recesses of epidermis. ­Possess blood vessels, touch receptors. ­Forms fingerprints and toe prints.  ­Fibers  ­Composed of fibrous connective tissue made by fibroblasts.  ­Collagen strength and toughness. ­Elastic fibers: extensibility and elasticity. ­Nutrition  ­Vitamin A and Vitamin C are important for healthy skin because they are necessary for collagen production.  ­Vitamin A ­Green and yellow vegetables, dairy products, and liver.  ­Vitamin C ­Fruits and green vegetables.  Nerve Endings  ­Pressure, pain, warm, and cold receptors are in deeper parts of the dermis. ­Lamellated and tactile corpuscles are for pressure and touch.  ­Free nerve ending may surround a hair follicle. ­Receptor nerve endings may surround a hair follicle.  There are two main types of cutaneous glands: sebaceous glands and sweat glands.  ­Sebaceous glands produce sebum and are associated with a hair follicle. ­Sweat glands include merocrine glands, apocrine glands, ceruminous glands, and mammary  glands.  ­Sebaceous Glands ­Oil­producing  ­Empty sebum into hair follicles  ­Functions ­Increase pliability and softness of skin and hair. ­Limit evaporate water loss. ­ Inhabit bacterial growth  ­Estrogen and testosterone increase sebum production. ­Sebum can block the top of the gland leading to the formation of a comedo (pimple).  ­The condition is called acne. ­Most common occurrence is during puberty when sex hormone levels rise.  Dermis  ­Sweat Glands ­Apocrine sweat gland. ­Merocrine sweat gland.  ­Ceruminous gland. ­Mammary gland. ­Apocrine Sweat Glands ­Empty secretion into hair follicle. ­Located in axillary and genital regions.  ­Activate at puberty.  ­Milky sweat due to proteins and fats.  ­Odorless body odor due to bacterial decomposition.  ­Merocrine Sweat Glands  ­Occur all over the body. ­Secrete sweat onto skin surface directly. ­Clear watery perspiration. ­Activated with increase in body temperature.  ­Functions to cool the body.  ­Ceruminous Gland ­Produce cerumen.  ­Found in external auditory canal. ­Keeps foreign particles and insects out of auditory canal.  ­Mammary Gland  ­In breast tissue, fully develops in females only, due to estrogen.  ­Produces Milk. ­Nourishes an infant.  ­One complex gland per breast. Each complex gland is made of several simple gland.  ­Hair Follicles ­Contains the hair root formed by the stratum basale.  ­Bulb of follicle is site of new hair growth.  ­New cells from hair matrix become part of the root.  ­Arrector Pill Muscle  ­Contracts and raises the hair in the follicle on end.  ­Cause “goose bumps” ­Hair ­A hair can be divided into three sections, the bulb, root, the shaft.  ­Three types of hair are lanugo, vellus, and terminal.  ­Three layers are the inner medulla, the cortex, and the cuticle.  ­All types of human hair can be divided into three sections. ­Bulb is a thickening of hair at the end of the hair follicle.  ­Root extends from bulb to the skin’s surface.  ­Shaft is the section of the hair extending out if the skin’s surface.  ­Lanugo Hair ­Very fine and colorless.  ­Forms on a fetus during the last three months of its development.  ­Usually replaced at birth.  ­Vellus Hair  ­Colorless, very fine, replaces lanugo hair around time of birth.  ­Vellus hair is the body hair on most women and children.  ­Terminal Hair  ­Thick, coarse, and heavily pigmented, forms the eyebrows, eyelashes, and hair on scalp.  ­At puberty, terminal hair forms in the axillary and pubic regions of both sexes. It also  forms on the face and usually on the trunk and limbs of men.  ­Nails  ­Nails protect the ends of the fingers and toes, aid in grasping objects, and are used for  scratching.  ­They are composed of hard keratin.  ­They are formed by stratum basale cells in the nail matrix.  ­Functions of the Skin­Review  ­The functions of the integumentary system include: -Protection from pathogens→dendritic cells. -Vitamin D production→calcium absorption. ­Temperature regulation. ­Water retention. ­Sensation­tactile corpuscles, nociceptors. ­Nonverbal communication­facial expressions.  ­Regeneration Versus Fibrosis ­Skin can heal by regeneration or fibrosis. ­In regeneration, normal function returns.  ­In fibrosis, normal functioning tissue is replaced by scar tissue.  ­Inflammation  ­Inflammation is the body’s response to a foreign invader. ­Signs of inflammation are redness, heat, swelling, pain.  ­Burns  ­Burns can be classified by degree. ­First­degree burns involve only the epidermis symptoms are redness, pain, and swelling.  ­Second­degree burns involve the epidermis and dermis. Symptoms include redness, pain,  swelling, and blisters. ­Third­degree burns involve the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Symptoms include charring  and no pain at the burn site.  ­All parts of the integumentary system are affected by aging.  ­The epidermis becomes drier, with uneven tanning, and age spots.  ­The dermis thins and produces less collagen and elastic fibers, this, along with gravity, causes  sagging and wrinkling of the skin. ­The hypodermis thins, providing, less cushioning and less insulation­blood vessels are slower to respond to temperature change.  ­Nails become thinner and more susceptible to fracture.  ­Hair thins and turns gray.  ­Skin Cancer  ­Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and it is associated with sun exposure.  ­Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, and it tends not to metastasize.  ­Malignant melanoma is the rarest form of skin cancer. ­The most deadly because it metastasizes easily.  ­Skin Infection  ­Skin can be infected by a type of bacteria, a virus, or a fungus.  ­Cellulitis is an example of a bacterial skin infection.  ­Warts are an example of a viral skin infection.  ­Tinea infections of the skin are caused by a fungus­Athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm.  ­Contact Dermatitis.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.