CHAPTER 14 NOTES (WEEK 5)
CHAPTER 14 NOTES (WEEK 5) BIOL 101
Cal State Fullerton
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Date Created: 02/22/16
CHAPTER 14 NOTES (14.1 – 14.10) 14.1 WHAT IS ECOLOGY? • ECOLOGY: a subdiscipline of biology defined as the study of interaction between organisms and their environments • Studied in different levels; individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems • POPULATION ECOLOGY: a subfield of ecology that focuses on populations of organisms of a species and how they interact with the environment 14.2 A POPULATION PERSPECTIVE IS NECESSARY IN ECOLOGY. • Primary focus is NOT the individual, but group of individuals 14.3 POPULATIONS CAN GROW QUICKLY FOR A WHILE, BUT NOT FOREVER. • GROWTH RATE: the change in the number of individuals in the population in some unit of time, such as a year o Two numbers to calculate: # of individuals now (N) and the per capita (r) • EXPONENTIAL GROWTH: A population’s size increases at a rate proportional to its size 14.4 A POPULATION’S GROWTH IS LIMITED BY ITS ENVIRONMENT. • If population increases, o Less food (competition) o Less places to live and mate o Increased risk of parasites and disease (spread more easily) o More predators • POPULATION DENSITY: the # of individuals in an area • DENSITY-DEPENDENT FACTORS: limitations on a populations growth that are a consequence of a population density • CARRYING CAPACITY, K: the ceiling on a population’s growth imposed by the limitation of resources for a particular habitat over a period of time • LOGISTIC GROWTH: a pattern of population growth in which initially exponential growth levels off as the environment’s carrying capacity is approached • DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FACTORS: limitations on a population’s growth without regard to population size, such as floods, earthquakes, fires, and lightning 14.5 SOME POPULATIONS CYCLE BETWEEN LARGE AND SMALL. • Some populations don’t grow logistically • Predator and prey cycle: o Prey population grows, o More food for prey, o Prey reproduce at higher rate, o Predators eat more prey o Prey population decreases o Predator population decreases o Prey population can start to increase again 14.6 “MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD” IS USEFUL BUT NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO IMPLEMENT. • MAXIMUM SUSTAINABLE YIELD: the special case in which as many individuals as possible are removed from the population without impairing growth • Patterns on population growth and environmental features influence evolutionary changes in population 14.7 LIFE HISTORIES ARE SHAPED BY NATURAL SELECTION. • LIFE HISTORY: the species’ vital statistics, including age at first reproduction, probabilities of survival and reproduction at each age, litter size and frequency and longevity • REPRODUCTIVE INVESTMENT: all of the material energetic contribution that an individual will make to its offspring 14.10 POPULATIONS CAN BE DESCRIBED QUANTITATIVELY IN LIFE TABLES AND SURVIVORSHIP CURVES. • LIFE TABLE: a table presenting data on the mortality rates within defined age ranges for a population; used to determine an individual’s probability of dying during any particular year • SURVIVORSHIP CURVES: graphs showing the proportion of individuals of particulars ages now alive in a population; indicate an individuals likelihood of during through a given age interval • High risk of mortality among oldest individuals; mortality may strike evenly at all ages
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