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Chapter 6 The Muscular System

by: Jaime Dolan

Chapter 6 The Muscular System 623359

Marketplace > penn state berks > Professional Education Services > 623359 > Chapter 6 The Muscular System
Jaime Dolan
penn state berks
Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease
Dr. John Grandizio

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Main points of Chapter 6
Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease
Dr. John Grandizio
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 623359 at penn state berks taught by Dr. John Grandizio in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Anatomy,Physiology, & Disease in Professional Education Services at penn state berks.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 6 The Muscular System Anatomical Terms terms such as origin and insertion are used to indicate muscle attachments intrinsic muscle refers to a muscle having its origin and insertion located in the same body region extrinsic muscle refers to a muscle haVing its origin in a different body regions than the insertion synergistsmuscles that have the same action prime moverthe main muscle that has an opposing action fixatora muscle that holds an origin stable for another muscle Muscle Actions muscle actions are the motions produced by muscles exionaction that bends a part of the body anteriorly such as exing the elbow the exception is the knee exion of the knee moves the lower leg posteriorly extensionaction that bends a part of the body posteriorly such as straightening the arm at the elbow as with exion the exception is the knee extending the knee straightens the lower leg abductionmovement of a part of the body away from the midline adductionmovement of a part of the body toward the midline protractionmovement of a part of the body forward retractionmovement that brings part of the body backwards lateral excursionmovement of the jaw laterally to either side medial excursionmovement of of jaw back to the midline dorsiflexionposition of standing on the hells with the toes pointing up to the oor plantar exion position of standing on tiptoes with the heels of the oor inversionposition in which the soles of the feet are together facing each other eversionposition in which the soles of the feet point away from each other rotationthe act of spinning on an axis circumductionthe act of making a circle with part of the body supinationrotation that turns the palms up pronationrotation that turns the palms down oppositionthe act of bringing the thumb to the palm repositionthe act of taking the thumb away from the palm elevationthe act of closing the jaw or raising the shoulders depression the act if opening the jaw or lowering the shoulders Muscles by Region muscles of the head and neck include orbicularis oris orbicularis oculi frontalis occipitalis temporalis buccinator masseter platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles of the thorax and abdomen include pectoralis major pectoralis minor serratus anterior diaphragm external intercostals internal intercostals external abdominal obliques internal abdominal obliques rectus abdominis and transverse abdominal muscles if the back and buttocks include trapezius latissimus dorsi erector spinae gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles of the arm include deltoid biceps brachii triceps brachii brachialis brachioradialis muscles of the forearm include extensor carpi radialis extensor carpi ulnaris palmaris longus exor carpi radialis exor carpi ulnaris extensor digitorum and exor digitorum carpal tunnel syndrome prolonged repetitive motions of the fingers and hands such as typing on a computer keyboard or regularly working with hand tools can cause in ammation of the tendons traveling under the carpal ligament muscles of the thigh include tensor fasciae latae gracilis adductor longus pectineus iliacus femoris vastus lateralis vastus medialis vastus intermedius biceps femoris semitendinosus and semimembranosus Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle a muscle has a fibrous covering called the epimysium a muscle is composed of a bundle of fascicles each fascicles is surrounded by perimysium a fascicles is composed of muscle cells muscle fibers surrounded by endomysium the connective tissue of the muscle come together at the end of the muscle cell or fiber to form a tendon Physiological Characteristics of Muscle Tissue 1 Excitability A muscle cell can be stimulated by a nerve to contract 2 Conductivity The stimulation from the nerve moves quickly along the length of the muscle cell 3 Contractility A muscle cell can shorten with force Muscles can only put they cannot push 4 Extensibility A muscle cell can be stretched If the biceps brachii contracts to ex the arm the triceps brachii needs to stretch to accommodate the motion Muscles are stretched by the contraction of other muscles 5 Elasticity If a muscle cell is stretched it will return to its original shape Neuromuscular Junction Stimulation of a muscle cell by a nerve happens at a neuromuscular junction Generically referred to as a synapse An electrical stimulation along the nerve cell results in the release of acetylcholine Acetylcholine fits into receptors on the muscle cell to stimulate it to contract A minimal amount of stimulus called a threshold is needed for the muscle to respond As long the threshold is reached the muscle cell will contract in an all or nothing manner Muscle Contraction at the Molecular Level Energy contained in ATP is needed for the contraction to happen and to actively transport calcium ions back to the sarcoplasmic so that the muscle can relax Types of Muscle Contractions A twitch is a contraction of a muscle cell in response to a single nerve stimulus A twitch has a latent phase contractions phase relaxation phase and refractory phase Tetany is a sustained contraction due to repetitive nerve signals It is the frequency of the nerve impulses that determines whether the contraction will be twitch or tetany Motor Units and Recruitment A motor unit is a single nerve cell all of the muscle cells it stimulates Small motors units are needed for fine precise movements Getting more motor units involved is recruitment More and more motor units can be recruited to achieve a larger motion Isotonic and Isometric Contractions In an isotonic contraction tension in the muscle remains constant as the muscle shortens In an isometric contraction tension in the muscle increases but there is no shortening of the muscle Muscle Metabolism Muscle cells can do either aerobic or anaerobic respiration to process energy Aerobic respiration is a many step process that produces enough energy to generate 36 ATP molecules for every glucose molecule but requires the addition of oxygen Anaerobic respiration is a shorter process that produces enough energy to generate 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule and does not require oxygen Anaerobic respiration results in lactic acid which must be removed by adding oxygen Aerobic respiration can be done for long periods of time while anaerobic respiration can be done only for short periods of time Fatigue Fatigue is the inability of a muscle to fully respond to a nerve stimulus whereas Physiological contracture is complete fatigue in which appears to be stuck It can no longer contract or relaX Can occur from injury Slow twitch fibers are specialized for aerobic respiration so they do not fatigue quickly ie long distance runner Fast twitch fibers are specialized for anaerobic respiration and therefore fatigue quickly ie sprinter Comparison of Muscle Tissues Skeletal muscle tissue is composed of long striated cells with multiple nuclei pushed off to the side The cells are under voluntary control rely on aerobic or anaerobic respiration for energy production and are associated with bones skin and body openings Cardiac muscle tissue is composed of branched striated cells with a single nucleus intercalated disks The cells are autorhythmic rely on aerobic respiration for energy production and are located in the heart The cells are under voluntary control rely on aerobic or anaerobic respiration for energy production and are associated with bones skin and body openings The cells are not under voluntary control rely on aerobic respiration for energy production and are located in the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs Nutritional Requirements of Muscle Tissue Muscle tissue must maintain the proteins needed for contraction Therefore amino acids the building blocks of proteins must be included in the diet The body can make nonessential amino acids Essential amino acids must be supplied through the diet complete proteins have all of the amino acids incomplete proteins are missing one or more essential amino acids The mineral potassium is also needed for proper muscle function Effects of Aging on the Muscular System Lean muscle mass decreases with age The amount of loss is genetically determined Fast twitch fibers are more affected than slow twitch fibers The effects of decreases muscle mass included the following Strength is decreased Fatigue occurs more quickly Stability is reduced Movement slows and becomes more limited Gait shortens walk with shorts strides Exercise is the best way to limit the effects of aging Muscular System Disorders Hemia is the protrusion of Viscera through the muscle of the abdominal wall Cramp is a painful muscle spasm that may have many causes Muscular dystrophy is a term for a group of hereditary disorders that result in the progressive degeneration of muscle tissue Myasthenia GraVis autoimmune disorder Muscle Conditions Strains vs Sprains Tendinitis Fibromyalgia Atrophy Shin Splints


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