Week 6 Notes
Week 6 Notes History 225
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 11 Notes (Foner, Give Me Liberty) Slavery (Foner, 397-400) After the north abolished slavery, slavery had become a “particular institution” in the South—it was unique to the southern society The Mason-Dixon Line was drawn by surveyors in the 18 th century to settle a dispute between Maryland and Pennsylvania o The Mason-Dixon Line would later become the dividing point of slave states and free states The population of slaves had risen to 4 million before the Civil War Cotton replaced sugar th the world’s major crop (produced by slave labor) in the 19 century 3/4ths of the world’s cotton supply came from the United States The “Second Middle Passage” developed in the south o Trading and “importing” slaves from state to state in the south Southern Economy (Foner, 402-404) Many farmers lived self-sufficiently from the market revolution People living in the Appalachian Mountains were very poor o Most southern states also lacked the free education that the northern states had The arrival of railroads helped integrate the southern states into the new market economy Andrew Johnson gained political power by claiming to be the voice of the common, poor white farmers against the “slaveocracy” of the large plantation owners The majority of slave holding families only held 5 or fewer slaves in 1850 Slavery was profitable Many slave-owners invested in canals and railroads Plantation wives idealized the “virtue” of women o Femininity o Beauty o Dependence on men Wives cared for sick slaves and servants and supervised the plantation while their husbands were away Proslavery Argument and Abolition (405-409) Many southerners kept the same mindset of the founding fathers —that slavery was a “necessary evil” Racism and white supremacy ideals ran deep in the south and created one “pillar” of the proslavery argument Many southerners also justified slavery through biblical passages Some believed that slavery guaranteed equality for whites Virginia writer George Fitzhugh repudiated Jeffersonian ideals Many southerners felt that freedom of whites laid in the power to be able to enslave and control blacks Conditions of Slave Life (Foner, 410-411) During the 19 century some states enacted laws that prevented the mistreatment of slaves and improved their living conditions Compared to the West Indies and Brazil, slaves enjoyed a much healthier life o Infant mortality rates were lower o Life expectancy was longer Free Southern Slaves (Foner, 411) Could legally own property and marry Not able to vote Prohibited from owning: o Dogs o Firearms o Liquor Could not strike a white man, even in self defense Treated as inferiors Works Cited Foner, Eric. "Chapter 11." Give Me Liberty!: An American History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2014. N. pag. Print. Chapter 13 Give Me Liberty The Manifest Destiny (Foner, 466-469) All the land East of the Mississippi River was inhabited by white people due to removal of the Indians The depression that began in 1837 led to a massive migration of people westward toward Oregon Difficulties included: o Disease o Starvation o The land barrier of the Rocky Mountains o Hostile Indian attacks The issue of slavery arose from the acquisition of a portion of Mexico Texas, California, and New Mexico had many isolated outposts that were surrounded by Indian land The Santa Fe Trail that was opened in 1821 linked New Mexico to the rest of the United States and rapidly influenced the new area o Trade with the United States quickly took over trade between New Mexico and Mexico Californios- class of Mexican cattle ranchers By 1840, California was involved commercially with the United States Texas Revolt (Foner, 470-472) Stephen Austin, son of Connecticut’s Moses Austin, settled Texas with a large number of Americans When the population of Americans outnumbered the native (non- Indian) Tejanos, Mexico barred future American immigrants from settling Stephen Austin and other Americans wanted more autonomy and had support from some Tejano elites Slavery fueled the fire—Mexico had abolished slavery, but the local government had allowed Americans to bring their slaves with them Mexico’s ruler sent an army to impose a central authority American rebels formed a government calling for Texan independence from Mexico On March 13, 1836 Santa Anna’s army invaded the Alamo and killed the rebels inside the compound Sam Huston defeated Santa Anna’s army and became the first president of the Republic of Texas In 1837 Texas asked to become part of the United States but Martin van Buren feared the dispute of adding another slave state to the Union Election of 1844 (Foner, 472-473) John C. Calhoun wanted to absorb Texas into the United States to give more power to the southern slave states in Congress Many people hoped that Texas would be split into several states to allow for more representatives in Congress President John Tyler hoped that bringing in more slave states would help gain southern support for his re-nomination in 1844 Clay received the Whig nomination Democrats favored James Knox Polk Polk’s nomination was unexpected Polk’s margin in the popular vote was less than 2% In March 1845, Congress declared Texas part of the U.S. The War (Foner, 473-475) Polk’s goals: o Reduce tariffs o Reestablish the independent Treasury system o Settling the dispute over who owns Oregon o Bring California into the Union The dispute over Oregon was solved when Great Britain divided Oregon at the 49 parallel The U.S. got the Willamette Valley and Puget Sound Polk had trouble bringing California into the Union o Mexico refused to sell the land to America o Polk planned to use military force The Mexican War was the first American conflict fought on foreign soil With the Manifest Destiny as inspiration, many Americans supported the war Race and the Manifest Destiny (Foner, 476-477) The U.S. received half a million square miles of Mexico’s territory with the end of the Mexican War The Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago guaranteed male citizens to liberty and property as well as all the rights of Americans o This was designed to protect the property of large Mexican landowners in California The California Gold Rush (Foner, 477-479) When gold was accidentally found at a sawmill in California, the fever for mining gold began People from Mexico, South America, and the Eastern states began arriving in California to mine for gold Irish, Germans, Italians, Australians, and Chinese arrived to mine, too The economic development of gold mining worsened conflicts between racial and ethnic groups White miners organized extralegal groups to expel foreign miners There was a tax of $20/month on foreign miners The state constitution limited the right to vote to only whites in 1850 Gold was simultaneously discovered in Australia The Wilmot Proviso (Foner, 480) Prohibited slavery in territories acquired from Mexico Free Labor Ideology (Foner, 490) By 1856 a new Republican party was forming o Antislavery democrats o Northern Whigs o Free Soilers o Know-Nothings All opposed the further expansion of slavery Dred Scott (Foner, 493-494) March 1857 Could a black person be a citizen? Did residence in a free state mean Scott is free? Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery within a territory? The Secession (Foner, 503-507) In the months after Lincoln’s election, 7 states seceded from the Union States of the Cotton Kingdom South Carolina was the first to secede Declaration of the Immediate Causes of Secession listed biggest cause as slavery for the reason of secession Works Cited Foner, Eric. "Chapter 13." Give Me Liberty!. an American History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011. N. pag. Print.
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