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PSY 150 Ch5 Lecture & Textbook Notes

by: Lorelei Wong

PSY 150 Ch5 Lecture & Textbook Notes PSY 150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY 150A1 > PSY 150 Ch5 Lecture Textbook Notes
Lorelei Wong
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Ch5 Notes
Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
Psychology, Structure of Mind & Behavior
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 5: States of Consciousness  What is Consciousness? o Focus on many early psychologists  Behaviorism  conscious like a speedometer  Gives a gauge of what’s happening  Don’t need it to work, can run without it o Consciousness – self-awareness of existence, environment, cognitive ability, and sensations o Conscious vs. unconscious  Consciousness happens with the activation of a certain amount of interactions and brain events o Different patterns, depending on what a person is aware of  Happens in several areas of the brain, such as the parietal and frontal lobe  Does not happen in the occipital and temporal o ***Consciousness is not merely perception. It is an experience that emerges from patterns of brain activity.*** o Timing of consciousness  Libet (1985, 2004)  Conscious decision to act lags behind brain events that evolve into action o Motor system happens about 500ms before movement o Conscious decision to move happens 200ms before movement  How it feels: o Consciousness  motor cortex activity  behavior  What actually happens: o Motor cortex activity  consciousness  behavior  Are decisions ever truly “conscious” or is consciousness just an awareness of what we are already doing? o Does “free will” exist?  If we don’t have free will why do we believe in it as much as we do?  Wegner (2002)  2 things need to happen for people to assume that one caused the other  1. Event A comes immediately before event B  2. It makes sense to us that A would have caused B o Ex: people experience a thought and then immediately find themselves having/doing a reaction  Magical thinking – belief that you influence events at a distance without having an explanation of how to do so  Think of an event just before it happens, believe you caused that to happen PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Ex: when people bowl and ball goes one way so they lean the other hoping it will change direction  Ex: sports and superstitions  lucky seat spot, lucky jersey, believing one person doing something will cause team to do well/bad  Sleep o Why do humans sleep?  Restorative theory – recovery, repair wear & tear, regain energy  Evolutionary theory – out sight is shit at night (comparatively to other species) so sleep keeps us out of trouble when the sun goes down (no good come after 2am)  Cognitive theory – helps consolidate memories o Circadian rhythm – occur in about 24hr cycles, regular bodily rhythms  “biological clock”  Most people sleepier mid-afternoon or evening  Blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, blood sugars, hormones, metabolism, etc. (hypothalamus functions…)  Hypothalamus uses light levels as a “clock” & controls the pineal gland o Pineal gland – endocrine gland that secretes melatonin  Melatonin – hormone that makes people feel sleepy  “The hormone of darkness” o Stages ***showing on midterm***  it takes about 5 minutes to transition from being awake to the first stage of sleep  Alpha waves – happen when still awake but resting (EEG machine waves)  Stage 1  Takes about 5 minutes to go through  Some people experience flashing lights, falling feeling, geometric patterns, floating feeling, or sudden and violent body jerks (hypnic jerk)  Easily awakened in this stage of sleep & will usually say they were not asleep if asked  Theta waves – regular, longer wave lengths  Stage 2  Takes about 20 minutes to go through  Fairly easy to wake someone up from this stage and more likely to say they were asleep if asked  Sleep spindles – brief bursts of rapid activity o Look like spikes that jut out in a steady stream of waves  K-complexes – the sole high-amplitude waves in the sleep spindles PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Stages 3 & 4  Takes about 30 minutes total (together) to go through  Delta waves – slower higher amplitude waves that become more regular during deep sleep o 20-50% of stage 3 is delta waves o >50% of stage 4 is delta waves  Body decreases heart rate, slows breathing, lowers blood pressure and body temperature o All of these are at their lowest during stage 4 sleep  REM (rapid eye movement) – rapid, irregular breathing & heart rate  Eyes are moving quickly behind closed eyelids  Brain activity is similar to that of theta waves in stage 1 o So difficult to tell difference between stage 1 and REM because of this  This is the stage we are most likely to dream in and remember our dreams o Dreams are emotional, highly detailed, and story- like  Earlier stages of dreams tend to be more like fleeting images and vague, not so easy to describe  Visual and auditory cortex is more active during REM than other stages  Cycles repeat about every 90 minutes and you will have 4-5 per night  Stages 3 & 4 get shorter every rotation through, until the end of the night when they eventually disappear and you just go from stage 2 to REM  REM cycles get longer as you sleep longer; 20-25% of a full night’s sleep is spent in REM o Sleep deprivation  2 nights of inadequate sleep  slower response times to usual visual cues  3 nights of inadequate sleep  cognitive, emotional, & physical difficulties will begin  6 nights of inadequate sleep  impatient, aggravated, minor frustrations, and usually life dissatisfaction  REM rebound – longer and more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation  Brain tracks how much REM sleep a person gets and adjusts the amount if it needs more o Dreams  We can dream during any stage of sleep; REM is just the most likely to be remembered  People awakened during REM remember dreams about 78% of the time PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  People awakened during other stages of sleep only remember about 14% of the time o Why do we dream?  Sigmund Freud  1 psychological dream theory – “royal road to the unconscious”  Believed dreams allowed us to express and fulfill unconscious desires  Interpretation of Dreams (1899)  Freudian dream interpretation – express and fulfill unconscious desires  2 levels of dream interpretation o Manifest content – the obvious and memorable parts of the dream o Latent content – the symbolic meaning of the dream  Very little empirical evidence, but the ideas were influential  Activation-synthesis theory of dreams – dream is a product of random bursts of neural activity  Happens especially in REM sleep  Activates auditory & visual areas  brain tries to make sense of this random neural activity  Dreams may help to consolidate memories  People tend to have better performances on learned tasks after REM  Dreams may also strengthen neural pathways by providing stimulation (especially during REM)  Ex: infants  lots of REM sleep and that’s when the brain is developing the fastest—when you’re a baby o Sleep disorders  Insomnia – difficulty going to sleep, staying asleep, waking up, or staying awake  Treating insomnia: medication o Sedatives  depresses the central nervous system activity  Ex: Xanax, Valium, Lunesta, Ambien, alcohol *** o sleeping pills can sometimes be problematic  addictions can arise and a tolerance could be formed  Treating insomnia: without medication o Keeping a consistent schedule every night (even on weekends and holidays!) o Give body cues to sleep  Ex: hot showers before bed, dim light levels before bed, no exercise or caffeine before bed (exercise earlier in the day helps) PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Stimulus control – create an association between bed & sleep by using bed for sleep only (ok, and sex…) o If can’t fall asleep get out of bed for 15 minutes, walk around, go to another room, then go back to bed  Narcolepsy – uncontrollable “sleep attacks” (5-20 minutes)  Slip into REM sleep within 10 minutes  Approximates 70% experience cataplexy o Cataplexy – loss of muscle control, impaired vision, slurred speech (comparison? like drunk)  Deficit in hypocretin  Sleep apnea – person stops breathing while asleep (airway muscles relax); often loud snoring  The decreased oxygen wakes a person immediately  People usually won’t know they have it, others diagnose them with it or chronic fatigue  Treating sleep apnea: CPAP machine (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) o Steam of continuous compressed air to keep the airway open via mask  Night terrors – vivid, frightening experiences while asleep  Suddenly sit up, gasping, screaming, sweaty & breathing heavily  Usually impossible to wake or calm down, usually just have to let them ride it out  Not nightmares o Nightmares – remembered dreams (REM), usually at the end of a night’s sleep  Night terrors  typically no memory, happen in stage 3 & 4, first 1/3 of the night’s sleep  Happens typically as a kid & will usually outgrow them  Hypnosis o State of mind characterized by:  Increased focus and awareness of vivid experience  Increased suggestibility  Decreased awareness of environment o Roots of hypnosis  Franz Mesmer (1734-1815):  Patients drink a solution that contains traces of iron  Waves a magnet above patient as pain relief o Kosslyn et al (2000):  Hypnotizable people  see color picture in black and white (and vice versa) when instructed to  PET scans  color area of occipital lobe (de)activities with suggestion o Some people more hypnotizable than others o Moderate correlation with absorption PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Absorption – capacity to concentrate totally on material outside oneself o Application of hypnosis  Reduce anxiety, fears  Ex: phobias  Decrease compulsive habits  Ex: smoking, overeating, bedwetting  Treat medical conditions  Ex: asthma, insomnia  Reduce pain & stress  Ex: childbirth, surgery  Blindsight o Blindsight – Phenomenon in which blind people can “see”  Occipital lobe damage  no conscious awareness of vision  … but avoid obstacles, reach for objects, imitate facial expressions, etc.  2 neural tracks for visual info:  1. Eyes  thalamus  occipital lobe (“mammalian” vision)  2. Eyes  brain stem (similar to fish, frogs, etc.) o Allows process with little to no attention o Visual neglect – the opposite of blindsight; damage to more primitive visual back  Deficits in attention to (and perception of) one half of visual field  Affects not only perceptions, but memory too PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes  Psychoactive drugs – influence a person’s emotions, behavior, and perceptions


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