Chapter 12: Personality
Chapter 12: Personality Psy 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Corpus on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 202 at Oregon State University taught by Patti Watkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 12: Personality Personality: an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling - Enduring, consistent, stable, and reliable (Similar across time and situations) Measuring Personality Behavioral observations Projective tests: Participant is presented with a vague stimulus or situation and asked to interpret it or tell a story about what they see - Rorschach Inkblot test - TAT Projective Techniques: a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual’s personality - Open to subjective interpretation - Rorschach Inkblot Test: individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent’s inner feelings an interpret his/her personality structure - ThematicApperception Test (TAT): respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people Self Report Personality Inventories: a series of questions that ask people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state - Questions: use multiple choice/T-F/Likert Scale - Valid scales may be included to identify response-style biases - Scientific Questionnaires: measure a single aspect of personality - Broad Questionnaires: measure multiple aspects of personality (e.g. MMPI-2, SCL-90-R) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): a well researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems - 500+ True/False - 10 Clinical Subscales - 3 Validity Scales Why Measure Personality? Identify personality/psychological disorders - MMPI-2 - Symptom Checklist-90-Revised - Questionnaires for specific personality disorders - Borderline Personality Disorder - Projective Tests Matching people to environments - Personal environments (e.g. type of mate) - Work environment (e.g. college major, type of job, type of coworker) - Tests: Myers-Briggs Personality Test and Holland Personality Test Theories of Personality Development Trait/Biologial - The TraitApproach: Identifying Patterns of Behavior - Trait: a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way - Researchers have described and measured hundreds of traits, such as authoritarianism - The Search for Core Traits - Traits can be classified by using adjectives (languages), which may be organized in a hierarchical pattern - Factor analysis sorts trait items into small dimensions. Researchers have argued how many core factors exist - Big Five: the traits of a five-factor model - Conscientiousness,Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openess to experience, and Extraversion (O.C.E.A.N) - Trait as a Biological Building Blocks - Behavioral genetics looks for correlations between monozygotic and dizygotic twins - Greater similarity in personality, the greater the overlap in genes - Traits in the Brain - Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) postulated that extraversion is most relevant to neurophysiological mechanism —variation in alertness - Over/under stimulation of the reticular formation (arousal) - Jeffrey Gray (1934-2004) proposed two brain systems responsible for extraversion and neuroticism - Behavioral activation system (BAS) - Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) Psychoanalytic Humanistic Social-Cognitive Hot Science: Personality on the Surface - Some valid personality judgements can be made from superficial cues - In a study, participants made personality judgements of business office and dormitory room occupants based not he way the room looked — Results showed their Big-Five estimations to be quite accurate - Other studies link personality traits to music preference - The way we outwardly express ourselves projects our personalities —appearance, personal social networking pages Personality Change - Brain damage and pharmaceutical treatments may cause changes in personality - Typical personality change across the life span - People become steadily more agreeable and conscientious from adolescence to late adulthood - People become more emotionally stable from adolescence to middle adulthood The PsychodynamicApproach: Forces That Lie BeneathAwareness Psychodynamic approach: personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness - movies that can produce emotional disorders (proposed by Freud) - Dynamic unconscious:Active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person’s deepest instincts and desires and the inner struggle to control these forces The structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego Freud proposed that the mind consists of three independent systems that determine the personality structure Id: part of the mind containing the drives present at birth —source of body needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly sexual and aggressive drives Ego: component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, enables us to deal with life’s practical demands Superego: mental system that reflects internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned parents exercise their authority Dealing with Inner Conflict Conflict between the id, ego, and superego causes anxiety Defense mechanisms: unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses - Rationalization: supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal one’s underling motives of feelings - Reaction formation: unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite - Projection: attributing one’s on treating feelings motives or impulses to another person or group - Regression: the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier state of development - Displacement: shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative - Identification: helps deal with feelings threat and anxiety by enabling us to unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or able to cope - Sublimation: channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities Psychosexual Stages and the Development of Personality Psychosexual stages: distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas (erotogenic zone) and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures - Fixation: a person’s pleasure seeking drives become psychologically stuck, or arrested at a particular psychosexual stage - Oral stage: experience centers on the pleasures and frustration associated with the mouth, sucking and being fed - Anal stage: experience centers on the pleasures an frustrations associated with he anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training - Phallic stage: experience centers on the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict - Oedipus conflict: a child’s conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent usually resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent - Latency stage: primary focus is on the further development of intellectual creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills - Genital stage: a time for coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner The Humanistic-ExistentialApproach: Personality as Choice Humanistic and existential theorists focus on how healthy choices create personality - Humanistic psychologist emphasize a positive, optimistic view of human nature —goodness and potential for growth - Existentialist psychologist focus not he individual as responsible agent —negotiating the issue of meaning and the reality of death Humanistic Psychology Hierarchy of needs - Self-actualization - Spontaneity, simplicity naturalness - Problem centered - Peak experiences - Creativity - Deep interpersonal relations - Quality over quantity - Resistance to enculturation - Not swayed by peer pressure Human Needs, SelfActualization, and Personality as Existence Self-Actualizing tendency: the human olive toward realizing our inner potential - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs recognizes self-actualizations s a higher need Engagement in tasks that match our abilities cause a state of focus called flow Existential approach: regards personality as governed by an individual’s ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death - Angst can arise and we find meaning in life and death and take responsibility for making free choices - Once must deal with issues head-on instead of using defenses The Social-CognitiveApproach: Personalities in Situations Social cognitive approach: an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves n response to them Person-Situation controversy: the question of whether behavior is cause more by personality or by situational factors - The situation and learning history are key determinants of behavior but are open to interpretation —how people perceive their environments Walter Mischel argued that personality traits do little to predict behavior and behaviors may not transfer in different situations - States that people’s personality traits are not consistent across all situations - People can vary their behavior depending on the situation Personal Constructs Personal Constructs: dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences —originally proposed by George Kelly (1905-1967) - Differences in perspective in the perceiver’s personality — different construals are key to personality differences Perspective is also reflected in personal goals - Outcome expectancies: a person’s assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behavior —combine with goals to produce characteristic style of behavior - Locus of control: a person’s tendency to perceive the control rewards as internal to the self or external int he environment —developed by Julian Rotter - Internal locus of control - Less anxious - Achieve more - Corps with stress better Causes and Effects of Self-Concept Self-concept: a person’s explicit knowledge of his/her own behaviors, traits, and other personal characteristics the sense of self is largely constructed through relationships with others Self-concept is stable and promotes consistency in behavior - Self-verification: the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept Self-Esteem Self-Esteem: the extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self - High self-esteem arises from being accepted and valued by others - Comparisons to others matter - Domains of importance very (e.g. grades, physical appearance, physical abilities, money, kindness) Benefits of self-esteem include status, belonging, and security - Belonging to groups is adaptive Self-serving bias: people’s tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures —to protect self-esteem Some take positive self-esteem to the extreme - Narcissism: a traits that reflects a grandiose view o the self combines with a tendency tot seek admiration from and exploit others
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