Chapter 13: Social Psychology
Chapter 13: Social Psychology Psy 202
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Corpus on Monday February 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 202 at Oregon State University taught by Patti Watkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology: Scientific stud of who other people influence our thoughts, behaviors and feelings Social Behavior: Interacting with People Social psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality - only four species are ultra-social Survival amount limit or scare resources Aggression Aggression: behavior whose purpose is to harm another Frustration-Aggression hypothesis: a principle stating that animals aggress only when their goals are thwarted Negative affect: may also cause aggression Behavior that is intended to harm another being - Instrumental aggression: when aggression is a means to achieve some goal - Hostile aggression: when aggression stems from feelings of anger Gender (being male) is the best predictor of aggression - Socialization and testosterone may be causes - Status and/or dominance may be threatened Aggression varies by geographic location Culture affects standards of aggressive acts Aggression as Learned Behavior Social influences on aggression - Albert Bandura - Social learning theory - Bobo Doll experiment - Experiments strongly suggest that watching TV violence leads to aggressive behavior - Tough Guise (Jackson Katz) - men learn to behave aggressively due to cultural norms Groups and Favoritism Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others Prejudice: a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership Discrimination: a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership Groups and Decision Making Decision making in a group can be hindered Deindividuation: when immersion ion a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values Diffusion of responsibility: the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the sam way Bystander Effect: greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency the less likely any one of them is to help Inclusion in a group promotes well-being and a feeling of belonging Altruism Altruism: behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself - Reciprocal altruism: behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future Reproduction: The Quest for Immortality Sexual partners are selected and women tend to be choosier Sex is a greater investment for women due to risk of pregnancy Culture propagates bias in reputation - Men are “players” - Women are “sluts” Small changes in courtship ritual can cause men to be choosier - Men become choosier searching for long-term partner Attraction Attraction feeling of preference) to another is caused by situational, physical and psychological factors Proximity breeds fondness Mere exposure effect: the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure Arousal can be misinterpreted as attraction Physical attractiveness is the major factor in attraction (and elicits all kinds of preferential treatment) - Body shape, symmetry, and age are all common factors - Height and weight matter but vary by culture and time - These factors are also predictors of good genes and good parenting We prefer mates who are psychologically (attitudes and beliefs) similar to us for a variety of reasons Relationships We form relationships to care for helpless offspring (more work than on caretaker can normally provide) Marriage in many cultures is the norm, and love is one of the major reasons why - Roughly one in two marriages end in divorce in our country There are two basic kinds of love: - Passionate love: an experience involving feeling of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction - Companionate love: an experience involving affection, trust and concern fora partner’s well- being Social exchange: hypothesis that people remain in relationship only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits - Comparison level: the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship - Equity: a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of the two partners are roughly equal - Sunken-cost theories predict that following great investment individuals will settle for less than optimal cost-benefit ratios - People end new marriages more often than older ones Social Influence: Controlling People Social Influence: the ability to control another person’s behavior Three basic motivations which make people susceptible to social influence: - Hedonic motive: experience pleasure, avoid pain - Pleasure seeking is the most basic motive of all motives - Reward and punishment can influence behavior, but can also backfire - Rewarded behavior may decrease; Punished behavior may increase - Approval motive: gain acceptance, avoid rejection - People want to be liked and accepted - Power of peer pressure - Adherence to societal beauty norms another example of social control for approval motives - Accuracy motive: believe what’s right - Attitudes tell us what we should do and beliefs tell us how to do it - Attitude: an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event - Belief: an enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event - Informational Influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information about act is good or right - Informational social influence - Conformity because one views others as a source of knowledge about what one is supposed to do Normative Influence Norm: a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture Normative influence: occurs when another person’s behavior provides information about what is appropriate Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them Door-in-the-face technique: a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior (Ask for a big favor, then a smaller one) Conformity and Obedience Conformity: the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it Normative pressure can have a strong effect Obedience: the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do - Stanley Milgram’s (1933-1984) Obedience study Normative pressure can have a strong effect Persuasion and Consistency Persuasion: a person’s attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication form another person - Systematic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason - Heuristic persuasion: the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion - Strength of the argument and whether and individual analyzes the evidence or uses heuristic matters People evaluate the accuracy of new beliefs by assessing their constancy with old beliefs Foot-in-the-door technique: a technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request Cognitive dissonance: an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs - Change to alleviate anxiety - Inconsistencies can be justified - Feeling of discomfort caused by information that is different from a person’s conception of himself as a reasonable and sensible person Social Cognition: Understanding People The medical prefrontal cortex is activated when we think about other people’s attributes Social cognition: the processes by which people come to understand others We make inferences about others based on the categories to which they belong and the things they do and say Stereotyping: Drawing Inferences from Categories Stereotyping: the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong Stereotypes can be inaccurate (aquired through hearsay or observations) - We overestimate rare events Stereotypes can be overused - We underestimate within-category variability Stereotypes can be self-perpetuating - Perpetual confirmation: when observers perceive what they expect to perceive - Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see - Subtyping: the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them Stereotyping can be automatic (occur unconsciously) Attribution: Drawing Inferences fromActions Attribution: an inference about the cause of a person’s behavior Why did an event happen? - Situational attributions attribute the external situation as cause - Other people - The environment - Luck, fate, God’s will - Dispositional attributions attribute someone’s internal disposition as cause - Personality, intelligence The covariation model claims we rely on consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus Correspondence bias: the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s behavior was caused by the situation (fundamental attribution error) - Situational causes may be invisible - Situational causes may be more complex Actor-observer effect: the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others
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