Notes on Indian Civilization
Notes on Indian Civilization 20133
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Donae Pollard on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20133 at Clayton State University taught by David Gilbert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Survey PreModern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Indian Notes Saturday, February 6:19 PM16 • Veda (Ritual Phase of Indian Religion), THIS WAS THE OLDEST RELIGIOUS SCRIPTURE BOOK -The Brahmans(Priest) they are the ones who do the rituals • Another text in the vedistic religion was Upanishads a poembook (this covered the philosophy of the religion) 4 main key ideas in the Vedistic Religion • Reincarnation • Karma • Unreality Dharma (path)- in Hinduismyourdharma is determined by your • cast system (social hierarchy) This is philosophy explained in the Upanishads. The final stage of Hinduism wasDevotion which means the best way to get good karmawas to develop a personal relationship with a god. Hindusare polytheistic they have over5,000 gods. The two main godsthat are followed the most in the pantheon • Shiva- “The destroyer” -‐Hasa son Ganesh, he’s very popularand Parvati is his mother. Ganesh is "the remover of obstacles". He had an elephant face. Kali she is the god of death. She is the symbolof ultimate rage and -‐ she is related to Shiva. • Vishnu-” The preserver” he keeps the universe going. Ganesh is "the remover of obstacles". He had an elephant face. -‐Kali she is the god of death. She is the symbolof ultimate rage and she is related to Shiva. • Vishnu-” The preserver” he keeps the universe going. -‐Vishnu comes back as these avatars Rama & Krishna HinduEpics Mahabharata - also known as the worlds largest poem. 1. Bhagavad–Gita - This story isabout the worldsbiggest warand a prince in charge trying to figure out the good orright side of it all. He begins to understand that because of the warmany will loose their lives. There is a stand still moment in the epic and there is a conversation between the prince and the driverof the chariot. He explains to the prince that the right thing to do is yourduty. Hiscast jobis a warrior. This is a significant moment in the religion. 2. Ramayana Ramayanaspends years trying to get his wife, family and truth to life. She waskidnapped and when she came back she went through trials to explain to her husband that she was being faithful during her captivity. It is a very popularmovie in India. These epic still effect people today socially and culturally. Hinduismjust mean indianism this term was created by the Europeans. As a way of explaining how the religion associates with the indian culture. Other religions in India 1.Jainism was founded by Mahavirahe was a prince born in luxury. When he turned 30 he went on a search forthe key to life. He became an ascetic. Asceticism means yougive up something good fora higher purpose. He gave away all of his clothes and for12 years he mediated on the meaning of life. The key belief to Jainism is non violence. He stopped eating anything that could harm living things. He stopped walking and ended up starving himself to death. good fora higher purpose. He gave away all of his clothes and for12 years he mediated on the meaning of life. The key belief to Jainism is non violence. He stopped eating anything that could harm living things. He stopped walking and ended up starving himself to death. Hisfollowerswould sweep the roads whenever them were walking justso they wouldn’tharm ants. Some Jains would even wear a maskso they didn’t accidently swallowflies. Most of these followersdied fromstarvation. The famousGandhi got his idea fromthe Jains. 2.Buddhism Started with SiddhartaGautama “The Buddha”means the enlighten one. He was a rich prince, and his father wastold by a fortune teller that he either was going to be an ascetic or a warrior/king. Hisfather didn’t want him to be ascetic so his father began to spoilSiddharta. He was a king at the age of 29 but he left his kingdomwhen he was30. 4 things he saw when he left the kingdom -was someone sick -decaying corpse -wandering Hinduold man -wandering ascetic who wore a simple robe but looked happy. Hisfather worstnightmare happened. He left his family to become a holy man. One night he was meditating under the Bodhi Tree then he had a moment of enlightenment. He came up with fournoble truths -All life issuffering -All suffering is caused by desire -Desire can only be overcome by nirvana - The eight- fold path leads to nirvana. The eight-fold path are 8 things you can do to get rid of your ego. This what the symbolof the 8 wheel stands forthat’s on the flag. - The eight- fold path leads to nirvana. The eight-fold path are 8 things you can do to get rid of your ego. This what the symbolof the 8 wheel stands forthat’s on the flag. But the similarities of the Buddhismreligion and Vedas believe in unreality, reincarnation, karma and dharma. THE JAINS AND BUDDHISM REJECTED THE CASTE SYSTEM FROM THE HINDURELIGION! When the Buddhadied they cremated his body. But before then he had traveled for40 years spreading his word.He used to eat porkbefore the religion became vegetarian. When he died he was stored in the stupa. His relics was left in the stupa which are objects of his devotion. Monks followed himand they had to leave their families. He called it “the middle way”. He compared his self indulgent life to his extreme asceticism life but he said that “the middle way”was the best way to live. ???Why do peoplebelieve Buddha was fat when didn’t eat much? The fat statue was created by the Chinese monk called Milefo (Budai) many people get the two confused. Empire in India (Political Structure) Alexander The Great was an outsider that got the Indians to unite to create the Mauryan Empire. -When he tried to take over the Indians land, the Indians retaliated and was led by a Chandragupta Maurya , the chief that unified the peopleto kick the Greeks out. The firstempire which wascalled the Maurya empire. At the end of Chandragupta life he joined the religion Jainism, he starved himself to death and gave away everything. Hisgrandson Ashoka is known as the greatest ruler. He expanded and conquered the rest of the empire. Not everyone wanted to be a part of the empire so he conquered them by force. Hishistory was written on a stele this is a stone pillar (monumental architectures).The last majorbattle wasat a place called Kalinga, the army killed 100,000 people and Hisgrandson Ashoka is known as the greatest ruler. He expanded and conquered the rest of the empire. Not everyone wanted to be a part of the empire so he conquered them by force. Hishistory was written on a stele this is a stone pillar (monumental architectures).The last majorbattle wasat a place called Kalinga, the army killed 100,000 people and 150,000 were deported. He later turned to a life of peace. So he starts sponsoring Buddhism.The oldest evidence of Buddhawriting was found on the pillar. He built a bunch of astopsand created laws regarding animals and animal cruelty. He isresponsible for spreading Buddhism. And they were the firstBuddhist kingdom. They are many denominations in the Buddhareligion. The two main groupsare - Mahayana, means the bigger vehicle. Bodhisattva gods are humans but when they die they become a vessel to the people of that religion. This religionwas also spread through the silk road. - Theravada, was known as the oldform, the Buddhais the teacher and you’re on yourown with out the god intervention Buddhismis the firstmissionary religion. After the battle that took place between the Indians and the Greeks a bookwas written called Indika and he was the ambassadorthat help rally and prepare the Indians forthe war. Buddhafollowersdo not believe in gods. Chakravartin: Literally turner of the wheel, a buddhist term forthe ideal ruler who patronized Buddhismbut never becomes a monk. After emperor Ashokathe Indian empire is going to degenerate. The Kush an empire develops modern Afghanistan The monopoly of trade through the “silk road”.
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