Art History II: Exam 2 Week 2
Art History II: Exam 2 Week 2 ART 1023
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Benjamin Harvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see History of Art 2 in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
02/22/16 Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Circa 1554 Bronze Commissioned by duke of Florence (Medici) Figure is 10/11ft tall; 18-19ft including the base Northeastern Italy – Venice Titian Pesaro Altarpiece 1519-26 Oil on canvas Commissioned for a private chapel in the Frari cathedral Moving Madonna and Christ from the center allows for visual movement around the composition Dissolves the “fourth wall” with the girl looking out Saint Peter: somewhat of a military leader; gate-keeper to Heaven Saint Frances: Franciscan church Aspects of Venetian painting o Emphasis on color o Glazing with oil paints o Experimental compositions Venetian styles Color Experimentation with subject matter o “Visual poetry”-subjects not drawn from a textual source Slight similarities to Leonardo’s style of using oil paints Very interested in landscape Giorgione The Tempest Circa 1506-08 Oil on canvas About 3’x2’ 02/24/16 Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 Oil on canvas Was originally a generic nude; maybe not exactly Venus As some attributes of Venus (i.e. roses) Private commission for the Duke of Urbino Painted in Urbino now housed in Florence Not linear perspective Titian becomes one of the first “painterly” painters Veronese Christ in the House of Levi 1573 Oil on canvas Depiction of the Last Supper 42’x18’ Shows variety and cosmopolitan style of Venetian life at the time **Monty Python Skit – question and answer conversation Renames the painting to appease the Pope Inscribed with “Lucae Cap. V”: Luke chapter 5 to further justify the other figures and remove it from being the Last Supper Tintoretto Last Supper 1594 Oil on canvas Titian’s color with the drawing/design of Michelangelo Commissioned for San Giorgio Maggorie in Venice to be placed on one side of the altar Supernatural versus natural o The lighting from the chandelier (natural) versus the halos (supernatural) o Angles/holy figures and the disciples 02/26/16 Palladio Villa Rotonda (near Vicenza, Italy) Circa 1566-90’s Almerico: patron Symmetrical floor plan Dome in the center; four patios around Palladio and Almerico die before completion Uses the ionic order (seen as more feminine) Palladianism: Chiswick House (1720’s); shows the spread of Palladio’s architectural ideas Differences between catholic and Protestant attitudes to art: Catholic: o Art objects are considered to have quasi-magical properties and offer access to the “divine” o The Council of Trent (1545-63) reaffirms the traditional place of art objects in devotional life; the Inquisition encourages the production of “appropriate” works o Devotional images are thought to support scripture instruct believers and teach the illiterate o Paintings, sculptures, etc. remain n churches and continue to serve a devotional function o Religious patronage remains important Protestant: o Fear of idolatry (worshipping objects might mean worshipping “false idols”) o Dislike of “intermediaries” (i.e. the church, pope, priests, saints, and Mary[Mariolatry]) o Stress on scripture as the “word of God” and the direct path to him; prints are considered and acceptable art form where images support/illustrate text o Waves of iconoclasm sweep Northern Europe; art objects are destroyed in churches and walls are whitewashed o Religious commissions dry up for artists o General shift to secular patronage and secular themes; growth in an “art market” Albrecht Durer Adam and Eve 1504 Engraving (fourth state) Northern elements combined with Italian tradition o Adam and Eve resemble an Apollo figure and a Venus figure Intaglio process: copper plate, cut the design into the plate and ink flows into the lower part of the plate o Allows for finer more delicate details than the simple wood cuts o Can have middle values through texture such as hatch marks Six animals (not including the serpent); four of which representing the four humours o Mouse o Goat o Elk: melancholic; black bile o Cat: choleric; yellow bile o Rabbit: sanguine; blood o Ox: phlegmatic; phlegm Grunewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece Circa 1510-15 Oil on wood panel Closed: o Crucifixion(center); Saint Sebastian(left) and Saint Anthony Abbbot(right); Lamentation(predella) First opening: o Virgin and child with angels(center); Annunciation(left) and Resurrection(right); Lamentation(predella) Second opening: o Nicolas Hagenau’s 1490 Shrine(Saint Anthony Enthroned between saints Elizabeth Gammill Dr. Benjamin Harvey Art History II Spring 2016 Notes EXAM ONE 01/13/16 Geographical Emphasis over the Course: Italy/Northern Europe (1300-1700) o Renaissance & Baroque France (1700-1945) o Rococo, Neo-Classism, Romanticism & Impressionism America (1945-Present) o Pop Art & Abstract Expressionism Vocabulary: Cut Away: showing the inside and outside of the subject. Dissection. “to unveil the hidden truth.” Cannon: accepted group or body of related works. A certain standard of judgment. Body of principles, rules, standards and norms. Attribution: an ascribed quality, character or right. The act of attributing a work to a person. An Attribute: an object that identifies a figure (most commonly objects held by Saints) Ex: Peter Martyr: knife in head & Saint Peter: key Connoisseurship: an expert trying to figure out the “5 w’s” of a work. Provenance: place of origin or earliest known history of something. Record of ownership of an object or an antique. 01/15/16 Identifying a Work: What to Study Author/Artist Title Time Support (i.e. canvas, etc…) Medium Size dimensions Italy-Around 1400 (beginning in Florence) Giorgio Vasari His idea of the Renaissance: o The Renaissance was a reaction to the medieval style of art which he calls “Greek” or “Byzantine” o It was mainly a Florentine achievement (Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo) with few exceptions o That competition encouraged excellence. o It was characterized by a new “openness” to nature as inspiration and guidance, and the art of antiquity (Greece and Rome) 01/18/16 Nicola Pisano Pulpit of Pisa – The Annunciation and Nativity Panel Marble 1259-60 01/20/16 Vocabulary: Contrapposto: “counterpose” it is used to describe the posture of standing with weight on one “engaged” leg and one bent leg; the arms and shoulders then twist off-axis from the hips and legs. Giotto Madonna Enthroned Tempera on wood Circa 1310 Egg tempera: main ingredient is egg yolk. o Dries quickly and has a stiff finish; hard to mix colors well, but is bright First image of Virgin Mary was painted by Saint Luke Giotto Arena Chapel/Scrovengi Chapel (Pauda) Fresco 1305-06 Fresco was painted on wet plaster so it would last longer. Fresco painted on dry surfaces don’t last as long (The Last Supper) Scrovegni family got their money from Usury. Dante places the Scrovegni family crest in the circle of hell associated with Usury. The chapel was privately funded for the Scrovegni family and was likely designed by Giotto himself. 01/22/16 Giotto Arena Chapel/Scrovengi Chapel (Padua) Fresco 1305-06 Focuses as much on Mary as the life of Christ Story is told in a circular pattern around the room th Dedicated on March 25 Giotto The Lamentation (Arena Chapel) Fresco 1305-06 Emphasis on narrative Vocabulary: Grisaille: monochromatic painting made to lood like a sculpture 01/25/16 To Sienna Duccio Maesta Altarpiece (Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints) Tempera on wood 1308-11 Has been taken apart and distributed, except for the main scene of Mart and Child (Still in Sienna) Back is painted with Christ’s Resurrection, Passion, Ministry (Christocentric) [taken apart] Emphasis on Iconic Duccio Maesta Altarpiece (Betrayal of Jesus) Tempera on wood 1309-11 Simone Martini & Lippo Memmi(?) Annunciation Tempera and gold leaf on wood 1333 Ambrogio Lorenzetti Effects fo Good Government in the City and country Fresco 1338-39 Vocabulary: Titchuli: “title” works on paintings that specify who/what everything is. 3 Aspects of the Country’s divisions of life: Cathedral- churches Civic- town halls Defensive- ton walls 01/27/16 Major sources of Religious patronage during the Renaissance Religious groups Political groups Trade groups (guilds) Private money (wealth individuals & prominent families) Campin (Master of Flemalle) Merode Altarpiece (open) Oil on wood 1425-28 Jan Van Eyck The Ghent Alarpiece (closed) Tempera and oil on wood 1425-28 01/29/16 Jan Van Eyck Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Tempera and oil on wood 1434 Vocabulary: Pentementi: “regrets” (Italian) Rogier van der Weyden Deposition Oil on wood Circa 1435 Louvain Commissioned by a guild of archers/weapon makers 02/01/16 First Exam: General questions (multiple choice: 10%) Image ID’s & questions (multiple choice: 40%) Unknowns (written response: 2x10%) Comparison Essay (written response: 30%) Back to Florence Claus Sluter The Well of Moses Asnieres Stone (limestone) with traces of paint 1395-1405 Ghiberti Sacrifice of Isaac Gilded bronze relief 1401-02 02/03/16 To Orsanmichele, Florence Major guilds chosen to commission statues to decorate the outside of the building (competition between guilds) Competition focused on materials, artist chosen, and subject matter Donatello Saint Mark Marble 1411-13 Saint Mark: Patron Saint of the guild of “Linen Drapers” Donatello David Bronze Late 1420s-1460s Roughly life size First free-standing nude bronze sculpture after antiquity Was inscribed with: “the victor is whoever defends the fatherland…” 02/05/16 Linear perspective Leon Baptist Alberti: wrote about linear perspective Masaccio Holy Trinity Circa 1424-27 Fresco Commissioned by the Lenzi family; man in red, his wife in blue (in front of Mary and John the Evangelist) Inscription in the tomb: “You are what I once was, but what I am you will become” 23 feet high Moving around Italy (Albino and Mantua) Peiro della Francesca Flagellation of Christ Circa 1455-65 Oil and tempera on wood Bifurcation of the scene (split into two sections) Less than a yard wide; very intimate Albino, Italy Mantegna Interior of the Newlywed’s Room (Camera degli Sposi) 1465-74 Fresco Duke named Gonzaga marries German woman to ally Germany with Italy Reception room showing the idealized court of Gonzaga Combination of true fresco with oil paint on drywall On the ceiling there is a painted “window” showing baby angels and plays on gravity 02/08/16 Botticelli Birth of Venus Circa 1482 Tempera on canvas Resembles tapestries Architecture in Florence Brunelleschi Dome of Florence Cathedral 1420-36 Building is mostly finished, but they couldn’t build the dome Brunelleschi figures out how to build the dome Double shell dome Leon Battista Alberti Palazzo Rucellai Florence Circa 1446-51 Rucellai Family=windswept sail Compare to Medici palace Bottom to top analysis of the facade o Tuscan-business o Alberti’s version of composite-reception rooms o Corinthian-family’s living o Servant’s quarters EXAM TWO 02/12/16 Leonardo Davinci Vitruvian man Wrote in his notebooks from right to left and backwards Drew from observation, but took that and tweaked it to make it something imaginary Wonderful art-related quotes Has very few finished works Leonardo da Vinci Last Supper Circa 1495-98 Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster) Was working as a court artist for Sforza The family Sforza was focused on the church: Santa Maria de la Grazi Example of single point linear perspective 40% is original paint from Leonardo Restored about 7 times Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa Circa 1503-05 Oil on wood Commissioned for Duke Geocondo Her real name is Lisa del Giocondo Mona Lisa = My Lady, Lisa Setting: sitting in an armchair with some architecture details behind her before the landscape; probably in some sort of gazebo or open indoor space. Landscape seems to be a reflection of her inner state/personality Pose: Italian portraits were usually in profile, not ¾ like in the Mona Lisa. Arm of the chair is parallel to the picture plane so she seems to be turning to acknowledge the viewer Using the psychology of presence: convincing the viewer that there is actually a person there 02/15/16 Still Leonardo Sfumato: smoky-ness, misty/hazy-ness caused by using paints with a high medium to pigment ratio; glazes Light and shadow Michelangelo Believed that the human body was the extreme expressive unit in art Michelangelo David 1501-04 Marble 12.5 tons Made to be seen from very far away, enhanced features (i.e. larger hands and negative space around limbs) Gilded in some areas (branch, sling and loin cloth) Michelangelo to Rome Michelangelo Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (including the Creation of Adam) 1508-12 Fresco 2 5800 ft Corners: Old Testament (x4) Triangular areas (above windows and lunettes): ancestors of Christ (x8) Spandrels: Old Testament Prophets and Classical Sibyls (x12) Center: scenes from Genesis (x9); large and small scenes alternate The Pope is a Rovere; their symbol is the oak leaf/acorn which are shown all over the ceiling 02/17/16 Michelangelo Last Judgment 1534-41 Fresco Commissioned for the Pope; Pope dies and the commission is continued for the new Pope, Paul III Raphael Raphael School of Athens 1509-11 Fresco Stresses major branches of learning o Theology o Jurisprudence o The Arts o Philosophy Architecture reflects the look of the new St. Peters (built by Bramante) Focused on the Western canon of philosophy 02/19/16 Bramante Tempietto 1502 Building Tempietto means “little temple” Commissioned by King Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Symbolically marking the place of Saint Peter’s crucifixion Small building, not functional; important as a landmark Mannerism What: painting sculpture and architecture characterized by: o Elongation, distortion, and human figure o Emphasis on artfulness and artifice over naturalness o Spatial ambiguity and instability o Stressing artistic difficulty When: 16 century art emerges in the 1520’s Where: Italy and France and generally Europe Early examples: Michelangelo (Last Judgment) and works by Parmigianino Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck Circa 1530-33 Oil on wood Elongation and distortion of human figure Emphasis of artfulness and artifice over naturalness Spatial ambiguity and instability Given a sense of sexuality Complex symbolism Unfinished 02/22/16 Cellini Perseus with the Head of Medusa Circa 1554 Bronze Commissioned by duke of Florence (Medici) Figure is 10/11ft tall; 18-19ft including the base Northeastern Italy – Venice Titian Pesaro Altarpiece 1519-26 Oil on canvas Commissioned for a private chapel in the Frari cathedral Moving Madonna and Christ from the center allows for visual movement around the composition Dissolves the “fourth wall” with the girl looking out Saint Peter: somewhat of a military leader; gate-keeper to Heaven Saint Frances: Franciscan church Aspects of Venetian painting o Emphasis on color o Glazing with oil paints o Experimental compositions Venetian styles Color Experimentation with subject matter o “Visual poetry”-subjects not drawn from a textual source Slight similarities to Leonardo’s style of using oil paints Giorgione The Tempest Circa 1506-08 Oil on canvas About 3’x2’
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