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Physical Geography Week 3 Notes

by: Julia Parenti

Physical Geography Week 3 Notes GEOG 101 001

Marketplace > Towson University > Geography > GEOG 101 001 > Physical Geography Week 3 Notes
Julia Parenti
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

These notes cover the following topics: -GPS -GIS -Active vs Passive Remote Sensing -Energy -Waves -Aphelion vs Perihelion -Earth's Spheres
Physical Geography
Dr. Ken Barnes
Class Notes
physical geography, geography
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Parenti on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 001 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ken Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/23/16
Physical Geography Lecture 5 Mercator Projection  Properties: conformal and true direction Remote Sensing  Indirect observation of the earth via systems that detect and measure electromagnetic  energy  Provides scientists with the measure (means) to monitor and to analyze the environment  at varied geographical scales ­local, regional, global Active Remote Sensing  These systems direct beams of electromagnetic energy towards an object or surface and  measure how much energy reflected back towards sensor  Example: radar, sonar, etc. Passive Remote Sensing  Only measure the amount of emitted or reflected radiation from an object or surface  LANDSAT is an example Global Positioning  Network of 24 satellites that orbit the earth every 12 hrs.   Continuously transmit a unique signal  The more signals that are detected, the more precise the triangulation is Geographical Information Systems (GIS)  Combine spatial and attribute data  Maps can contain multiple data layers ­physical features ­cultural features  Layers can be added to create a composite area  GIS: marriage of computer graphics, mapping and database management systems  Used to capture, store, manipulate, analyze and display data in map formats  Revolutionized geography and other spatial sciences ­widely used by natural and social scientists, planners and marketers Radiant Energy, Geography of the Atmosphere and Composition Radiant Energy: Solar and Terrestrial  Solar Energy: drives environmental processes operating on the Earths surface and within  the atmosphere  Energy from the sun is propogated in the form of electromagnetic waves (radiation)   The sun radiates mainly short wave energy ­shorter wavelengths convey more concentrated energy (higher)  The earth absorbs shortwave radiation and radiates longwave energy, which is less  concentrated (lower) from of energy ­This is terrestrial (heat) energy Movements of Solar Radiation  Transmission: pass energy, unaltered through atmosphere or water  Scattering: change direction of light movements  Refraction: change in speed and direction of light  Solar Constant: amount of energy striking the top of the earths atmosphere varies slightly, about 7% throughout the year  The average amount is called the solar constant ­measure at 300 miles above the earth’s surface  Solar constant: 1.96 calories per cm² per min ­calorie: energy unit required to raise 1 gram of water, 1 º C  Only half of this amount reaches surface Waves  Radiowaves: TV, FM/AM radio  Microwave: microwave (food), radar  Thermal Infrared: heat lamp  Middle Infrared  Shortwave Infrared  Hear Infrared  Visible Light  UV rays  X Rays: medical applications  Gamma Rays: energy discharges from atomic nuclei These waves travel from shortest to longest waves moving from Radio waves to Gamma Rays What happens to incoming radiation?  Reflected by gases and particles with the atmosphere and by various earths surfaces  Scattered/diffused  Absorbed and transformed within atmosphere and at earths surface ­when energy is transformed, it goes from concentrated to less concentrated  Transformations: ­solar to sensible heat: a significant energy transformation within earth atmosphere  systems ­solar to latent heat: energy stored in water vapor, cannot be felt/sensed ­solar to chemical: photosynthesis Aphelion and Perihelion  The earth is closer to the sun in January (Perihelion) than in July (Aphelion)   Results in slightly more radiation being received from the sun in January ­the additional energy strikes the Earth mainly in the southern Hemisphere (summer in  southern hemisphere) ­about 7% more in January than July rd ­Januarth3  =Perihelion ­July 4 = Aphelion Atmosphere  Veil of gases that surrounds the earth   The atmospheres top: 480 km (300 miles)  Atmospheric gases have mass and exert pressure on earths surface  75% of mass of atmosphere lies within 11 km (6.8 miles) of the earths surface Heterosphere  Outer atmosphere: 80 km (50 miles) outwards  Layers of gases sorted by gravity Homosphere  Inner atmosphere  Surface to 80 km (50 miles)  Gases evenly blended Layers based on Temperature Troposphere: closest to the surface  Air moves vertically  Temperature goes down with altitude  Weather happens here Stratosphere: Planes travel here Mesosphere: zone of lowest temperature Thermosphere: zone of highest thermodynamic temperatures


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