Physical Geography Week 3 Notes
Physical Geography Week 3 Notes GEOG 101 001
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GEOG 101 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Parenti on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 001 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ken Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Physical Geography Lecture 5 Mercator Projection Properties: conformal and true direction Remote Sensing Indirect observation of the earth via systems that detect and measure electromagnetic energy Provides scientists with the measure (means) to monitor and to analyze the environment at varied geographical scales local, regional, global Active Remote Sensing These systems direct beams of electromagnetic energy towards an object or surface and measure how much energy reflected back towards sensor Example: radar, sonar, etc. Passive Remote Sensing Only measure the amount of emitted or reflected radiation from an object or surface LANDSAT is an example Global Positioning Network of 24 satellites that orbit the earth every 12 hrs. Continuously transmit a unique signal The more signals that are detected, the more precise the triangulation is Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Combine spatial and attribute data Maps can contain multiple data layers physical features cultural features Layers can be added to create a composite area GIS: marriage of computer graphics, mapping and database management systems Used to capture, store, manipulate, analyze and display data in map formats Revolutionized geography and other spatial sciences widely used by natural and social scientists, planners and marketers Radiant Energy, Geography of the Atmosphere and Composition Radiant Energy: Solar and Terrestrial Solar Energy: drives environmental processes operating on the Earths surface and within the atmosphere Energy from the sun is propogated in the form of electromagnetic waves (radiation) The sun radiates mainly short wave energy shorter wavelengths convey more concentrated energy (higher) The earth absorbs shortwave radiation and radiates longwave energy, which is less concentrated (lower) from of energy This is terrestrial (heat) energy Movements of Solar Radiation Transmission: pass energy, unaltered through atmosphere or water Scattering: change direction of light movements Refraction: change in speed and direction of light Solar Constant: amount of energy striking the top of the earths atmosphere varies slightly, about 7% throughout the year The average amount is called the solar constant measure at 300 miles above the earth’s surface Solar constant: 1.96 calories per cm² per min calorie: energy unit required to raise 1 gram of water, 1 º C Only half of this amount reaches surface Waves Radiowaves: TV, FM/AM radio Microwave: microwave (food), radar Thermal Infrared: heat lamp Middle Infrared Shortwave Infrared Hear Infrared Visible Light UV rays X Rays: medical applications Gamma Rays: energy discharges from atomic nuclei These waves travel from shortest to longest waves moving from Radio waves to Gamma Rays What happens to incoming radiation? Reflected by gases and particles with the atmosphere and by various earths surfaces Scattered/diffused Absorbed and transformed within atmosphere and at earths surface when energy is transformed, it goes from concentrated to less concentrated Transformations: solar to sensible heat: a significant energy transformation within earth atmosphere systems solar to latent heat: energy stored in water vapor, cannot be felt/sensed solar to chemical: photosynthesis Aphelion and Perihelion The earth is closer to the sun in January (Perihelion) than in July (Aphelion) Results in slightly more radiation being received from the sun in January the additional energy strikes the Earth mainly in the southern Hemisphere (summer in southern hemisphere) about 7% more in January than July rd Januarth3 =Perihelion July 4 = Aphelion Atmosphere Veil of gases that surrounds the earth The atmospheres top: 480 km (300 miles) Atmospheric gases have mass and exert pressure on earths surface 75% of mass of atmosphere lies within 11 km (6.8 miles) of the earths surface Heterosphere Outer atmosphere: 80 km (50 miles) outwards Layers of gases sorted by gravity Homosphere Inner atmosphere Surface to 80 km (50 miles) Gases evenly blended Layers based on Temperature Troposphere: closest to the surface Air moves vertically Temperature goes down with altitude Weather happens here Stratosphere: Planes travel here Mesosphere: zone of lowest temperature Thermosphere: zone of highest thermodynamic temperatures
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