BIO 101 in class notes 2-23-16
BIO 101 in class notes 2-23-16 BIO101N
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Tersigni on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO101N at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bailey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Proteins In Living Systems ● The carbon atom is the central core of all organic molecules ● Found in: ○ muscle tissue ○ membrane structure of cell ● Enzymes(catalyze reactions in living systems):structure is important Protein function ● Relates directly to the 3D shape of molecule ● If you change the shape you will change the way it catalyzes ● 3D shape directly determined by the sequence of the amino acids in molecule ● thus: primary structure really determines protein structure/function ● 20 types of amino acidsvary in complexity and form ● Many proteins act as enzymes ○ catalyze chemical reactions in biol systems ○ enzymes lower the energy required for chemical reaction ● enzymes are specific to a particular chemical reaction ● thus: shape helps determine the specific reaction which catalyzes 2.13 Enzymes speed chemical reactions ● the sum total of all the chemical reactions in an organism in called metabolism ● an enzyme is a protein that speeds up the chemical reaction Catalyst function ● lowers energy of activation ● energy required for a Rx to take place is lowered ● Lock and key concept of substrateenzyme interaction(Lock being the substrate and key being the enzyme) ○ unique shape of enzyme and substrate ○ one specific enzyme for each substrate ● Why don’t some enzymes work the way they are supposed to? ○ because they have been modified during the process they are made ● Where are proteins made? ○ the endoplasmic reticulum ■ a membrane structure where you find ribosomes which is where this process takes place Ch. 3 Cell membrane and organelles ● Cell membrane structure ○ membranes in biol systems are composed of a complex of protein and lipids in a unique layer called unit membrane ○ This cell structure is so unique that is is semi permeable. 3.4 membranes regulate what substances can enter and leave the cell ● every membrane is selective Membrane Function ● serves as limiting barrier for cell ● anything that goes in or out must go through the membrane Movement across cell membranes ● Passive Transport Mechanism ○ diffusion/osmosis ○ moves substance(water) along with concentration gradient ○ what is the difference between diffusion and osmosis ■ osmosis relates to the water moving across the membrane ■ diffusion relates to any other substanceions or molecules ○ from high to low concentration ● Active Transport Mechanism ○ the substances are moving against the concentration gradient ○ moving from low concentration to high concentration ○ what is involved in the active transport process(universal form of stored energy in every living systems)? ■ ATPthe form of stored chemical energy which lets your body's cells, organs, and tissues do work. ■ moves something across the barrier 3.1 Cells can be grouped into two categories ● All cells on earth can be classified into two general kinds ○ prokaryotic cells ■ bacteria ■ small, simple ■ single celled ■ fossils date back to 3.5 billion years ■ reproduce by binary fissiona sexual process ■ rapid extinction ■ genetics are all the same ○ Eukaryotic cells ■ unicellular or multicellular ■ well defined membrane bound organelle structure ■ may reproduce asexually(usually unicellular) or sexually