Cultural Anthropology Ch 9 Notes
Cultural Anthropology Ch 9 Notes Anth 2800
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Shahna Arps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Anthropology Ch. 9 Notes FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF MARRIAGE marriage: the customs, rules, and obligations that establish a special relationship between sexually cohabiting adults, between them and any children they take responsibility for, and between the kin of the married couple o extends social alliances by linking together different families and kin groups marriage and family are cultural patterns o change over time with changing political and economic circumstances and the life stages of individuals different types of relationships are acceptable in different places different family concepts are acceptable in different places MARRIAGE RULES every society has rules governing sexual relations and marriage INCEST TABOOS o incest taboos: a prohibition of sexual relations between relatives universal, but apply to different groups of people restrict who is an acceptable marriage partner different explanations for the cause biological: prevents inbreeding that would have a deleterious effect on humanity; and birth defects psychologically: humans have an innate aversion to those they were raised with; sexual competition between siblings or parents and children would create disruption and kin role confusion in the family Alliance: force people to marry outside their group, creating wider social bonds that are useful in helping these groups survive o endogamy: a rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group PREFERENTIAL MARRIAGES o some societies have preferential marriage rules usually involving cousin marriage o crosscousin marriage: marriage between an individual and the child of his or her mother’s brother or father’s sister reinforces ties between kin groups established in the preceding generation, preserving the relationship between two intermarrying kin groups across generations o Parallelcousin marriage: marriage between the children of a parent’s same sex siblings (mother’s sister, father’s brother's) prevents the fragmentation of property and keeps economic resources within the family o levirate: the custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother o sororate: the custom whereby, when a man’s wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife demonstrate the importance of marriage as an alliance between two groups rather than between individuals NUMBER OF SPOUSES o all societies have rules about how many spouses a person may have at one time o monogamy: a rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time o polygamy: a rule allowing more than one spouse o polygyny: a rule permitting a man to have more than one wife at a time o polyandry: a rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time o POLYGYNY increases a man’s wealth and therefore his social position extends a man's alliances because he has wives from many different groups found primarily in societies where plural wives increase both a families labor supply and its productivity sororal polygyny: a preference for a man to marry sisters type of marriage has declined due to pressures of Western and Christian condemnation of polygyny o POLYANDRY relatively rare related to a shortage of land if brothers marry a single wife, their father’s land can be kept intact within the family rather than fragmented over the generations functional where men are away from home for long periods of time related to a shortage of women CHOOSING A MATE o in most societies, kin group interests rather than individual desires are the bases of mate selection o arranged marriage: families pick, traditionally the bride and groom don’t see each other until the ceremony THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS AND RIGHTS IN MARRIAGE the public rituals and ceremonies distinguish marriage from other unions marriage involves the transfer of certain rights from each partner to the other marriage requires an exchange of goods or services between the families of the bride and groom BRIDE SERVICE AND BRIDEWEALTH o types of marriage exchange o bride service: husband must work for a specified number of years for his wife’s family in exchange for his marital rights o bridewealth: goods presented by the groom’s kin to the bride’s kin to legitimize a marriage (formally called “brideprice”) bridewealth finances males’ marriages bridewealth is returned in the marriage is terminated stabilizes marriages by giving both families a vested interest in keeping the couple together DOWRY o dowry: presentation of goods by the bride’s kin to the family of the groom or to the couple o explained as: the voluntary gift symbolizing affection for a daughter leaving home and compensating her for her traditional exclusion from the inheritance of land or property source of a married woman’s security compensations to the groom’s family way to improve financial and social standing FAMILY STRUCTURES, HOUSEHOLDS, AND RULES OF RESIDENCE Nuclear family: organized around the relationship between husband and wife (conjugal tie) extended family: family based on blood relations extending over three or more generations consanguinity: blood ties between people a household is different from a family o nonkin are included in households there are different residence rules for people once they are married o pg. 221 nuclear family: o usually associated with independent households o 5% of societies are traditionally neolocal o adapted to industrialized capitalism o Dominate in foraging groups (75%) o the changing American family: still extols the independent, nuclear neolocal family the diversity of American families is far from this high divorce rate increasing samesex commitments domestic partnerships samesex marriage increase number of working mothers and singleparent households surrogate reproduction childless couples people that remarry after divorce increase number of three generation households high rates of divorce and remarriage enmesh nuclear families into larger and more complicated kinship network “blended families” increase in number of multigenerational families increase of immigrants who live in such families increase of adult children that move back home because they can't find work COMPOSITE FAMILIES o composite (compound) families: an aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse most often the husband polygynous households EXTENDED FAMILIES o consists of two or more generations of male or female kin and their spouses and offspring, occupying a single household under the authority of a household head o common among cultivators o helps keep land intact over generations o common in prosperous merchant classes USING ANTHROPOLOGY: FAMILIES ADAPTING TO GLOBALIZATION o residence rules and family type are economically and politically adaptive o family structures adapted to traditional subsistence patterns or forms of political organization may no longer be adaptive under the emerging industrial and postindustrial economies of the 21st century o the value of marriage has declined and less people are marrying o childbearing is decreasing KINSHIP SYSTEMS: RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH BLOOD AND MARRIAGE kinship: a culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or through marriage o determines the formation of social groups, is the basis for classification of people in relation to each other, structures individual rights and obligations, and regulated behavior o kinship is a system Kinship system: the totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society o cultural phenomena smallscale non industrial societieskinship is the most important social bond Kinship systems provide continuity between generations and provide for the orderly transmission of property and social position between generations. RULES OF DESCENT AND THE FORMATION OF DESCENT GROUPS o descent: the culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents important basis of social group formation in many societies o descent group: a group of kin who are descendant of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations organize domestic life, acculturation children, determine the use and transfer of property and political and ritual office, carry out religious ritual, settle disputes, engage in warfare, and structure the use of political power o UNILINEAL DESCENT unilineal descent: descent group membership based on links through either the maternal or the paternal line, but not both advantage is that kin groups don’t overlap and provide clearly defined group membership for everyone in the society o TYPES OF UNILINEAL DESCENT GROUPS lineage: a group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor patrilineage: a lineage formed by descent in the male line matrilineage: a lineage formed by descent in the female line vary in sizethree generations upward related lineages may form clans common ancestor could be a mythological figure lineage is often a local residential or domestic group whose members cooperate on a daily basis’ clans are generally not residential units but tend to be spread out over many villages exogamy: a rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group o PATRILINEAL DESCENT GROUPS: THE NUER patrilineal descent: a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only Ex: a man, his sisters and brothers, his own children, his brothers children (but not his sister’s children), and his son’s children (but not his daughter's children) belong to the same descent group. the husband is guaranteed rights and control over his wife's) and children Nuer Pg: 228 o MATRILINEAL DESCENT GROUPS: THE HOPI matrilineal descent: a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only rights of the father fall to the woman's brother, not her husband marriage gives a man sexual and economic rights over his wife, but not rights over their children all rights and responsibilities vested in male elders fall to a woman's brother rather than her husband means that a man must pass on his knowledge, property, and offices to the sons of his sister, not his own o DOUBLE DESCENT double descent: the tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for a different purpose 5% of world cultures BILATERAL KINSHIP SYSTEMS o bilateral descent: both maternal and paternal lines are used as a basis for reckoning descent 40% of world's societies o don't have clearcut descent groups kindreds: networks of kin defined only in relation to a particular individual o common in societies where mobility and independence are important THE CLASSIFICATION OF KIN kin are referred to by special terms Kinship classification system: the total system of kinship terms and the rules for using these terms o one of the most important regulators of behavior in most societies defines how each person must act toward other and how others must act toward him or her logic underlying all kinship systems is cultural not biological PRINCIPLES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF KIN o generation: distinguishes ascending and descending generations from ego o relative age: where seniority counts, ex: distinguishing an older and younger brother o linearity v collaterally: lineal kin: blood relations linked through descent, such as Ego, Ego’s mother, Ego’s grandmother, and Ego’s daughter where lineal kin are related in a single line, and collateral kin are descended from a common ancestor with ego, but not ego’s direct ascendants or descendants o gender: differentiates relatives according to whether they are male or female o consanguine or affine: differentiates relatives by blood in contrast to relatives by marriage o sex of linking relative: differentiates crosscousins from parallel cousins o bifurcation: distinguishes relatives from the mother's side of the family from those of the fathers sider
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