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week 4 notes

by: Lordiah Obas

week 4 notes MGT 250

Lordiah Obas

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just weekly notes
Managerial and Organizational Concepts
Shinwon Noh
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lordiah Obas on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 250 at Pace University taught by Shinwon Noh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Managerial and Organizational Concepts in General at Pace University.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
PROFESSOR SHIWON NOH MANAGERIAL AND ORGANIZATION -MGT250 Lordiah Obas MGT 250 M ANAGERIAL & O RGANIZATION C ONCEPTS LUBIN S CHOOL OF B USINESS P ROFESSOR SHINWON N OH S PRING 2016 Week 1 (1/28/16): Management: getting work Effectiveness: accomplishing task through others effectivelto fulfil organizational goals. efficiently. Managers: individuals in Efficiently: the most outorganization who direct and the least amount of inputoversee other people Types of managers: Top (CEO, chairman, president) Middle (district or division) First-line (supervisor, shift managers) Team leaders Four Function of managers  Planning: achieving a goal  Controlling  Organizing: who is what  Leading(commanding): motivating or encouraging Roles of managers Interpersonal:  Figurehead, performs social/ceremonial/legal duties  Leader  Liaison, dealing with people outside their units Informational:  Monitor, scan their environment for info  Disseminator, sharing the collected info with subordinates / other in the companies  Spoke person Decisional:  Entrepreneur: adapting themselves, subordinates, unit to change  Disturbance handlers: responding to pressure/problems need immediate attention/action  Resource allocator: decision who gets what resources and in what amount  Negotiator: negotiate schedules, project, resource and employee raises Skills of Managers  Technical- procedures, techniques, and knowledge in getting the job done.  Human- ability to work well with others  Conceptual- see the organization as a whole  Motivation to manage Week 2 (2/4/15): Early Management: Examples  Egyptians pyramids th  Venetian arsenal (13 century)  Industrial Revolution Scientific Management Taylor  Used scientific methods  To fix the problems of soldiering  To find the “One Best Way” of doing work  Time study (e.g., Science or Shoveling) Gilbreth  Motion study (e.g., bricklaying) Gantt: Gantt Chart Bureaucracy Weber 1. Traditional authority 2. Charismatic authority 3. Rational-legal authority Administrative Management Fayol  Administrative ability is more important than technical ability  14 Principle of Management- division of labor Human Relations Follett  Efficiency alone is not enough; treat your employees well  Conflict resolution  Distributive: win-lose (zero-summary)  Integrative: win-win Mayo: Hawthorne Studies  6 workers separated from the factory for experiment  Originally designed as scientific management experiment  But, productivity increased regardless of lighting. Why?  Paid more attention  Cohesiveness Barnard  Employees’ willingness to corporate is the key to success  Zone of indifference: where employees automatically accept managerial authority Contingency Management Week 3 (2/11/16) Taylor’s Four Principle of Scientific Management Taylorism 2. Scientifically select and then train, teach and develop the workman 3. Heartily cooperate with the workmen 4. Divide the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen Environment Uncertainty Resouce Scarcity Complexit y (simple vs. complex) Change (stable vs.dynami c) =UNCERTAINTY th **** MGMT, 8 Edition, William, Chuck**** Organizational Culture  A set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by organizational members Three levels of cultures 1. Artifacts: seen 2. Value: heard 3. Assumptions: believed How Cultures Form  Founder  Selection  Top Management  Socialization How employees Lean Culture  Story  Ritual (company charts)  Material Symbols (office size/layout)  Language (acronym) Week 4 (2/18/16): Benefits of Planning  Direction  Efficiency  Central 1. Set goals  Specific goals 2. Develop commitment  Management by objective (MBO) 3. Develop effective action phrase (what, when, where, how) 4. Track progress towards goal achievement (proximal vs. distal goods) 5. Maintain flexibility Types of plans Strategic Plan  Long term  Mission statement Tactical Plan  Details of the strategic plan Operational Plan  Repeated procedure Decision Making  Choice from among two or more alternatives Problem Perceived Decision making Rational Decision making  Optimizing 1. Define the problem 2. Identify the decision criteria 3. Allocate weights the criteria 4. Develop the alternatives 5. Evaluate the alternatives 6. Select the be alternatives Assumptions  Bounded nationality  Satisficing  Good “enough” Availability Bias:  The tendency for people to base their judgement on information that is more easily recalled although it may be potentially inaccurate  Cause- Repetition, Regency, Cognitive availability Representativeness Bias:  Tendency to ignore base rates  People refuse to discuss (sign prenuptial agreements because they do not believe that the high base rate for divorce applies to them) Gambler’s Fallacy  What are the odds? Another lemon?  Is the thinking correct or incorrect?  The outcome of the previous hires (failure or successes) will not affect the performance Conjunction Fallacy  Assumption that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one Anchoring Bias  People are influenced by the suggested number even if they know it is incorrect, irrelevant, or not based by data Overconfidence Bias  Overstimulating the probability of being correct  In popular culture Groupthink  Situation in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views 8 Symptom of Groupthink 1. Illusion of invulnerability 2. Collective nationalization 3. Belief in inherit morality 4. Stereotyped views of out-groups 5. Direct pressure on dissenters 6. Self-censorship 7. Illusion of unanimity 8. Self-appointed “mind guards” Minimizing Groupthink 1. Limit group size 2. Have leads play in impartial role 3. Appoint challenges 4. Talk about risks before gains Traditional Group Decision making Interacting groups:  The most traditional decision making techniques  Problem: prone to groupthink Brainstorming:  Generates a list of creative alternatives  Problem: production blocking New Group Decision making Technique 1. Electronic Brainstorming 2. Nominal Group Technique - Restricts discussion during the decision making process to encourage independent thinking 3. Delphi Technique


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