Professional Ethics, notes Week 7 Part 1
Professional Ethics, notes Week 7 Part 1 PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Luyet on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 1120, Professional Ethics at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Ryan Fanselow in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Professional Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
RACE AND GENDER ISSUES Learning Objectives: 1. Be able to define natural kind, racialism, and racism 2. Distinguish b/w intrinsic and extrinsic racism 3. Give reasons why racism is irrational and immoral INTRO~Difference b/w cats and dogs isn’t parallel to the difference b/w security guards and police officers because one is a real difference (by nature) and the other difference is one that was made (by humans), respectively I) Learning Objective #1 Species are natural kinds biologically different things who are different in nature independently of what we think are there also natural kinds within species? (1)Racialism is a view that says yes according to this view, there are actually races in nature just like species according to this view, the difference b/w, say, black and white people is a real difference that exists in nature Appiah thinks this idea is false, but that most people hold this view regardless (i) Those that hold this view are NOT bad people; they’re just misinformed (2)Constructivism says that racial categories exist, but not in nature they are created by our cultural practices for this view to be true, there must be some coherent way of sorting people into races Appiah, again, does not believe this idea either (3)Error Theory says that race is an illusion; all our talk about race is in error (b/c racial differences don’t exist!) Appiah DOES belief this one! (i) EX/ there’s no difference b/w thinking different races exist and believing in Santa Claus b/c you’re presupposing they both exist when you make statements about them there is NO coherent way of sorting people into races (i) cannot be skin color, geography, culture, ancestry, or birthplace… NONE OF THEM WORK! Racists are racialists who think the real difference between races is morally relevant a difference b/w people is “morally relevant” if it gives us a reason to treat 2 people differently (meaning, you can be a racialist and not a racist !) II) Learning Objective #2 there are two kinds of racism: (1)Extrinsic Racism we ought to treat different races differently b/c: (i) people of race R are stupid/dishonest/cowardly (ii)people of race Q are none of these things (iii) people who are stupid/dishonest/cowardly should be treated differently than those who are not (iv) Therefore, people of race Q and R should be treated differently (2)Intrinsic Racism the mere fact that someone of a different race is enough a moral reason to treat them differently NOTE: extrinsic racists think race is correlated w/ another trait, but intrinsic racists do not Quiz of Comprehension: 1. Sarah believes that Asians are morally inferior b/c they’re stupid and cowardly, but admits that if they weren’t stupid and cowardly, they wouldn’t need to be treated differently. a. Sara is an extrinsic racist 2. Which view makes an empirical claim? a. Extrinsic Racial Ideas III) Learning Objective #3 Appiah says that it’s irrational and immoral to be an extrinsic racist Why might extrinsic racists be irrational? and ignore empirical evidence? they’ve been taught these things since childhood and don’t take the time to consider if these beliefs they have are even true propaganda negative personal experiences they have something to gain from the belief (1)EX/ slave holders believed slaves were less smart and more different than “whites” b/c they had tons of financial gain from NOT freeing their slaves. Had they not held these beliefs and freed their slaves, they would have lost a lot of money Why might intrinsic racists be irrational? they have religious values that hold the beliefs they don’t have a reason for the beliefs; if there’s not difference b/w the races behaviorally, then why treat them differently? they grew up w/ these beliefs since childhood and never considered if the thoughts were even justified/logical Why is it immoral to be a racist? it hurts other people could cause conflict and violence violates “the Golden Rule”: treat others as you would want to be treated failure to extend sympathy as far as it could go (Appiah) IV)Sexism extending the same concepts to gender are gender categories of natural kinds? socially constructed? an error? (1)Extrinsic Sexism: holds that having a certain gender is correlated w/ some moral failing (2)Intrinsic Sexism: holds that having a certain gender is itself a moral reason to treat other genders differently V) Heteronormativity extending the same concepts to sexual orientation are sexual orientation categories of natural kinds? socially constructed? an error? (1)Extrinsic Heteronormativism holds that having a certain sexual orientation is correlated w/ some moral failing (2)Intrinsic Heteronormativism holds that having a certain sexual orientation is itself a moral reason to treat others with another sexual orientation differently
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