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Biology 115 Chapter 3 notes

by: owlenstar

Biology 115 Chapter 3 notes PLB115


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About this Document

These notes are from chapter 3
General Biology
Dr Gage
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, plb115
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by owlenstar on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLB115 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr Gage in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter 3 Macromolecules: The building blocks of life Endocrine Disruptors: Organic Pollutants EE2, synthetic estrogen used in birth control, patches, rings, and injectables The Macromolecules A small number of atoms are used to build all the molecules of life those molecules are often linked together in polymers to form macromolecules Atoms > Molecules > Small building blocks (monomers) > Macromolecule (polymer) > Carbohydrate, protein, nucleic acid (DNA) Carbohydrates Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in various combos. Simple sugars, Sources of energy, can give shape to cells. Lipids Three types: True fats (olive oil, steroids), proteins (polymers made of monomers of amino acid), DNA & RNA. Polymer large molecule composed of repeated subunits (monomers). Some macromolecules are polymers: Sugar and protein subunits are linked together via condensation reactions. Carbohydrates sugars or saccharides usually end in “ose” (ex. glucose, sucrose (table sugar), fructose, lactose (milk sugar) Polymers, with prefix indicated number of sugar units Mono= one Di= two Poly= three or more Monosaccharides: A chain attached end to end Disaccharides: sugars linked together via condensation rxns. Type of linkage matters. Polysaccharides: 3+ sugars, in straight or branched chains. Proteins also called peptides usually large molecules structural or functional roles polymers of amino acids link between amino acids is called a peptide bond one of the largest macromolecules Levels of structure primary is just amino acids secondary coils or folds the chain tertiary folds the coiled or folded chain quaternary is 2 or more tertiary Enzymes help chemical reactions in our bodies. Happens in saliva. First step in digestion. Lipids not soluble inw ater large molecules, but not polymers three types phospholipids (for membranes) true fats (energy storage and supplies: Essential fatty acids) (stearic acid, linoleic acid, alpha linoleic acid) steroids (biochemical roles)(Make up sex hormones, regulate sperm and egg production, regulate salt in blood)(cholesterol, progesterone, vitamin D, testosterone) Nucleic acids DNA and RNA storage and transmission of genetic info polymers of nucleotides Nucleotides consist of three components DNA vs RNA RNA is the same as DNA except that: RNA uses ribose, not deoxyribose RNA uses uracil (U) not thymine (T) Why spend time on this? To understand cells and how they work Non Biological Protein Data storage Electronics proteotronics, or the study and development of electronic circuits with proteins as a plug-in part. Nanotechnology


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