KIN 199 Chp. 4 Notes
KIN 199 Chp. 4 Notes KIN 199
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Fendley on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 199 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Colleen Geary in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Ecol Appr Hlth & Fitness in Kinesiology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter Four Muscular Strength and Endurance 1. Skeletal Muscle a. Muscle tissue that is composed of contractile tissue b. Under voluntary control c. Causes joint movement d. This is the type of muscle you train through various method of strength and endurance training i. As opposed to cardiac muscle trained through cardiorespiratory endurance training, and smooth muscle which is not trained 2. Fiber Types a. Slow twitch i. Fatigue resistant ii. Don’t contract as rapidly and forcefully as fast twitch iii. Rely primarily on the aerobic energy system iv. Red muscle fibers v. Aerobic energy source 1. Consumed and stored fat is the main substrate vi. High level of aerobic endurance vii. Low level of anaerobic power 1. Not strong or forceful viii. Most resistant to fatigue ix. Perfused with blood 1. Red in color b. Fast twitch i. Fatigue more quickly than slow twitch fibers ii. Contract rapidly and forcefully iii. Rely more on the anaerobic energy system iv. White muscle fibers v. High anaerobic capacity vi. Produce ATP (energy) anaerobically 1. Carbohydrate/glucose stores are main substrate vii. Fatigue extremely quickly viii. Poor aerobic endurance ix. Not perfused with blood 1. White in color c. Most skeletal muscles have BOTH fiber types d. Percentages of slow and fast twitch muscle fibers are not the same in all muscles of the body or from person to person 3. Fiber Type Training a. Weight training for the two fiber types is different b. Slow twitch i. Muscular endurance ii. Lower weight, but more repetitions c. Fast twitch i. Muscular strength ii. Higher weight, less repetitions 4. Muscular Strength vs. Endurance a. Strength i. The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort ii. Measured by 1 repetition max at maximum weight 1. 1 rep max b. Endurance i. The ability to resist fatigue while holding or repeating a muscular contraction c. Muscles make up 40-50% of your body mass d. Well-developed muscles can assist with i. Daily routines ii. Protection from injury 1. Especially low back injuries iii. Enhancement of your overall well-being 5. Basic Muscle Physiology a. Muscles consist of individual muscle fibers connected in bundles b. Muscle fibers are made up of smaller protein structures called myofibrils i. Contractile elements of the skeletal muscle c. Proper strength training causes individual fibers to increase the number of myofibrils i. Resulting in hypertrophy ii. Principle of Progressive Overload d. Inactivity can reverse this process i. Resulting in atrophy ii. Principle of Reversibility 6. Motor Units a. A motor unit is made up of a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers i. Small motor units contain slow twitch fibers ii. Large motor units contain fast twitch fibers b. Motor unit recruitment is the process when strength is required, nerves assist with the action i. The number and type of motor units recruited are dependent upon the amount of strength required. c. The ability to improve the body’s ability to recruit motor units is known as muscle learning d. There comes a time when you’ve recruited all of the muscle fibers you can i. Occurs about 6-8 weeks after you’ve started training ii. Results in neurological gain rather than true physical gain 1. Called neuromuscular adaptations iii. Once this is reached, you must use the principle of Progression to gain more muscle since your body adapts to the training you’re currently doing 7. Benefits of Muscular Strength and Endurance a. Improved performance of physical activities i. Performance of ADLs easier 1. Climbing stairs 2. Walking dog ii. Modest improvements in maximal oxygen consumption b. Improved body composition i. Increases muscle mass ii. Helps lose fat because the metabolic rate is related to muscle mass 1. The more muscle mass, the higher the metabolic rate 2. Strength training can boost resting metabolic rate by 15% c. Enhanced self-image and quality of life i. Increases energy ii. Makes daily activities easier and more enjoyable iii. Provides stronger, firmer-looking muscles and a toned, healthy-looking body iv. Women tend to: 1. Lose inches 2. Increase strength development 3. Greater muscle definition v. Men tend to 1. Build larger, stronger muscle a. Due to testosterone levels d. Prevents injuries i. Enables you to maintain good posture ii. Encourages proper body mechanics during everyday activities such as walking and lifting iii. Increases strength of connective tissue 1. Makes cells stronger and less susceptible to injury, particularly of: a. Tendons: muscle to bone b. Ligaments: bone to bone c. Cartilage: cushion between bones in joint e. Improved muscle and bone health with aging i. Helps maintain motor nerve connections and quickness of muscles 1. Can prevent muscle and nerve degeneration with can compromise quality of life and increase risk of hip fractures ii. Counter acts effects of sarcopenia 1. Sarcopenia: muscle mass loss, beginning around age 30 iii. Lessens bone loss (osteoporosis) and may even build bone mass in postmenopausal women and older men f. Prevention of chronic disease i. Helps prevent and manage both CVD and diabetes 1. Reduced blood pressure 2. Increased HDL/ decreased LDL a. HDL—good cholesterol, LDL—bad cholesterol 3. Improved blood vessel health 4. Improved glucose metabolism 8. Static vs. Dynamic Strength Training a. Static (Isometric) exercise involves a muscle contraction without a change in the length of the muscle or joint angle i. Considered useful in strength building after an injury/surgery ii. Isometric contractions are usually held for 6+ seconds iii. Static exercise: 1. Requires no equipment 2. Builds strength rapidly 3. Useful for rehabilitation b. Dynamic (Isotonic) exercise involves a muscle contraction with a change in the length of the muscle i. Concentric 1. Muscle fibers shorten as they contract ii. Eccentric 1. Muscle fibers lengthen as they contract 2. Induce the greatest gains in muscle strength 3. An eccentric workout, a negative workout, would include concentric contractions followed by slooooooww eccentric contractions iii. Dynamic exercise: 1. Can be performed without or with equipment 2. Can be used to develop strength or endurance 3. Use full range of motion 4. Are more popular with the general population 9. Applying the FITT Principle a. Frequency i. 2-3 nonconsecutive days/week, allowing 1 day or rest between workouts b. Intensity i. Strength requires lifting as heavy as 80% of your 1 rap max, endurance requires 40-60% of your 1 RM 1. Focus on both concentric and eccentric phases of exercise in controlled manner (2 seconds for each) c. Time i. 1-5 reps for strength ii. 15-20 reps for endurance iii. 8-12 for a combination of both 1. Making sure each set leads to overload of that muscle group d. Type i. Target large muscle groups (8-10 exercises), including opposing muscles 1. Important to balance exercises between opposing muscle groups a. If you work your abs, it’s important to work your back b. 10. Warm Up and Cool Down a. Everyone should perform a warm up prior to each weight training session i. A general warm-up and performing light reps of each exercise is recommended before every training session b. To cool down after weight training, always stretch for about 5-10 minutes i. Can prevent soreness 11. Supplements a. Supplement manufacturers often make claims about their products that will promote or enhance sport performance or physique b. Most of these substances are ineffective and expensive, as well as possibly dangerous c. Before purchasing and/or using these products, find other resources that document these dietary aids