Notes from 2-25-2016
Notes from 2-25-2016 BIOL 243 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Notes from 2-25-2016 (Class for Tuesday was cancelled) I. Articulation a. Factor: movement Structure Ligament Muscle tension II. Classification of Joints a. By Movement Synarthroses- no movement Amphiarthroses- slight amount of movement Diarthroses- a lot of movement b. By Structure Fibrous: ligament- dense regular; no joint cavity Cartilaginous: cartilage; no joint cavity Synovial: has a joint cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid III. Fibrous Joints a. Sutures- skull bones Fontanelle- soft spot present in skull bones of babies because their skull bones are not fully fused Synostosis- sutures are totally fused in adults b. Syndesmosis- held together by dense regular tissue Tibia & fibula- synarthroses Radius & ulna- amphiarthroses IV. Cartilaginous Joints a. Synchondroses- hyaline cartilage Temporary between epiphysis and diaphysis Costal cartilage b. Symphyses- fibrocartilage In between vertebrae (vertebral discs) Amphiarthroses Pelvic girdle V. Synovial Joints- all different types of movement allowed by synovial joints 1. Movements a. Flexion- decreases the angle between 2 bones (flex arm) i. Dorsiflexion- decrease angle between foot & leg ii. Plantar flexion- increase angle between foot & leg b. Extension- increases the angle between 2 bones (extend arm) i. Hyperextension- head can do it and be fine; hyperextending knee and elbow is bad c. Abduction- move away from midline (lift arm up) d. Adduction- move toward midline (put arm down) e. Circumduction- cone like movement (arm circles) f. Rotation- movement around an axis (twisting a doorknob) g. Elevation- elevation of mandible (close mouth) h. Depression- depression of mandible (open mouth) i. Supination- outward rotation (wrist up, radius & ulna are parallel) j. Pronation- inward rotation (wrist down, radius rotates over ulna) 2. Structure Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage Articular capsule o Fibrous capsule- faces the outside o Synovial membrane- faces the inside, secretes synovial fluid Articular disc- made of fibrocartilage, in knees, acts as cushion Bursae- fluid filled sacs, located between skin & bone, tendon & bone, or ligament & bone; acts to reduce friction o Bursitis- bursae become inflamed, very painful, simple movements become very problematic Tendon sheaths- very similar structures to bursae, wrap around tendons o Tendonitis- inflammation of tendon VI. Types of Joints 0. Non-axial . Plane joint- between carpals, between tarsals, between metacarpals & carpals o Ligaments hold these bones together, determining the movement of plane joints 1. Uniaxial- movement in 1 plane . Hinge joint- elbow, knee, phalanges Extension & flexion a. Pivot joint- between 1st and 2nd vertebrae, proximal joint between radius & ulna Rotation around an axis 2. Biaxial- movement in 2 planes . Condyloid joint- radius & carpals, metacarpals & phalange Flexion & extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction (possible when you add F&E with A&A) a. Saddle joint- between carpal & metacarpal on thumb (only place in body 3. Multiaxial Many movements Found in shoulders & hips Also called ball and socket joint VII. Problems with Joints Arthritis- inflammation of a joint Osteoarthritis- the wear & tear arthritis, occurs as people just age and articular cartilage breaks down/degenerates, bone spurs can form, causing swelling of joint and pain Rheumatoid arthritis- thought to be an autoimmune disease, ones own body/antibodies will attack the synovial membrane, resulting in pannas formation in joint cavity If pannas substance calcifies, disfiguring fingers, no use for fingers Gouty arthritis- uric acid crystals are deposited in joints Usually uric acid is excreted in urine, but some people's diets affect uric acid concentration (lots of meat, or dysfunctional kidneys), very painful, can deposit in other parts of the body other than fingers, genetic
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