Chapter 7 APR Notes
Chapter 7 APR Notes APR 231
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter 7: Communications Tuesday, February 9, 2016 9:28 AM Implementation (or Execution) • Effective communicator: Need the following • What constitutes comm and how people receive messages • How people process information and change perceptions • What kind of media and communication tools are appropriate for a particular message Gruning: 5 Possible Objectives (we have in communications) • Message exposure: Controlled, Uncontrolled • Accurate dissemination of message o Ex.) Many people thought the majority of the university is greek, inaccurate • Acceptance of message • Attitude change • Change in overt behavior Hallahan: Integrated PR model • Public media: Awareness, credibility • Controlled media: Promotion; detailed info • Interactive media: Queries; exchange info; engage • Events/Groups: Motivate; reinforce existing beliefs, attitudes • One-‐on-‐one: Obtain commitments; negotiation/resolution of problems • Table 7.1 (make a copy of the chart and take it everywhere the rest of your career; IMPORTANT) Therkelsen: To be successful • Receiving the message • Paying attention to the message • Understanding the message • Believing the message • Remembering the message • Acting on the message Receiving Message: 2-‐Way Communication • Loop process: obtain in research and evaluation • Feedback=2-‐way; Ex. Facebook vs. Traditional media (TV) • Grunig: 2-‐way symmetrical; understanding vs. persuasion • Key to excellent practice Paying Attention to the Message • Exposure not = attention, memory, understanding • Uses and gratification theory: surveillance, entertain/diversion, reinforcement, decision making • Passive: attention if entertaining or diversion; Need style and creativity; “IT in the Toilet” • Active: At interest stage; search for more sophisticated, supplemental info; Search illness • Multiple messages, multiple channels to reach all • Triggering Event: cause to act on latent willingness to behave in a certain way Ex. H1N1; Occupy Wall Street; Open House, Boston Tea Party Other Attention Concepts • Five senses: 83% learn via sight, 11% hearing • Retain: 50% retention based on seeing and hearing • Multiple tools: IMC • Raise need level upfront: benefit: Census Bureau • Interest at beginning of message: get them; tell them; summarize • Channeling: reinforce predispositions, values • Prior knowledge and interest, pay more attention; tap current events, issues of concern Understanding the Message • Communication: transmit, common understanding of symbols: Ex. Differences in countries, classes th • 42% Americans lowest literacy level; 1 in 8 4 grade • Writing for clarity: • Flesch readability: Ex. 9th grade (most magazines, newspapers): Random 100 words 4.2 sentences and 142 syllables; complex sentences >19 words; wording compensation vs. pay • Cloze comprehension: Fill in missing words • Microsoft program; copy test Understanding the Message (cont.) • Use symbols, acronyms, slogans: each a short-‐hand Branding (Mercedes Star), Audio (NFL theme); GASP, NOW, AIDS; I’m lovin’ it, Death Tax • Avoid jargon: Semantic noise: Ex. attenuation rates (cell phone) • Avoid cliches, hype words: world class, cutting edge,110% • Avoid euphemisms: Ethnic cleansing, collateral damage, career reassignment • Avoid discriminatory language: Police man vs officer Believing the Message • Source credibility: knowledgeable, expert on subject • Context: Action speak louder than words: Ex. Buy US meeting with “Made in China” cup • Involvement: high, what is said; low, who says it Believing the Message (cont.) • Predispositions: Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance • Won’t believe something contrary to their predispositions unless o Situation change: gas price increase, development in China, India o New information about new developments: Perception of China toys when Mattel admit problems o Use unexpected communicator: Chevron use conservationists Remembering the Message • Repetition (Redundancy) • Multiple channels • Fight entropy: messages lose information as they process along • Truman: Tell them what you’re going to tell them; tell them; tell them what you told them Acting on the Message • Five-‐Stage Adoption Process o Awareness o Interest o Evaluation o Trial o Adoption • Rogers: Factors Affecting Adoption • Relative advantage: perceived as better • Compatibility: consistent with values • Complexity: difficult to use, understand • Trialability: experienced on a limited basis • Observability: results are visable Time Factor: Varies with product/idea • Innovators: Venturesome, try new • Early Adopters: Savvy, Keep up, opinion leaders for friends • Early Majority: Deliberate, pragmatic approach • Late Majority: Skeptical, somewhat resistant • Laggards: Very traditional, last to adopt How Decisions Are Influenced • Awareness: Mass media: ads, news, features, radio/TV announcements; support with eWOM, web • Interest: Mass media, more detailed info: features, web, brochures; meetings, seminars • Evaluation, Trial, Adoption: Personal experience, group norms, family/friend opinions; credible sources, experts contact • WOM: Word of Mouth Ex. P&G Herbal Essences and Old Spice; opinion leade
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