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Chapter 7 APR Notes

by: Courtney Small

Chapter 7 APR Notes APR 231

Courtney Small

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Notes from chapter 7 lecture
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
intro, public relations
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter  7:  Communications     Tuesday,  February  9,  2016   9:28  AM   Implementation  (or  Execution)   •   Effective  communicator:    Need  the  following   •   What  constitutes  comm  and  how  people  receive  messages   •   How  people  process  information  and  change  perceptions   •   What  kind  of  media  and  communication  tools  are  appropriate  for  a  particular  message       Gruning:    5  Possible  Objectives  (we  have  in  communications)   •   Message  exposure:    Controlled,  Uncontrolled   •   Accurate  dissemination  of  message   o   Ex.)  Many  people  thought  the  majority  of  the  university  is  greek,  inaccurate   •   Acceptance  of  message   •   Attitude  change   •   Change  in  overt  behavior       Hallahan:    Integrated  PR  model   •   Public  media:    Awareness,  credibility   •   Controlled  media:    Promotion;  detailed  info   •   Interactive  media:    Queries;  exchange  info;  engage   •   Events/Groups:    Motivate;  reinforce  existing  beliefs,  attitudes   •   One-­‐on-­‐one:    Obtain  commitments;  negotiation/resolution  of  problems   •   Table  7.1  (make  a  copy  of  the  chart  and  take  it  everywhere  the  rest  of  your  career;   IMPORTANT)       Therkelsen:    To  be  successful   •   Receiving  the  message   •   Paying  attention  to  the  message   •   Understanding  the  message   •   Believing  the  message   •   Remembering  the  message   •   Acting  on  the  message       Receiving  Message:    2-­‐Way  Communication     •   Loop  process:    obtain  in  research  and  evaluation   •   Feedback=2-­‐way;  Ex.  Facebook  vs.  Traditional  media  (TV)   •   Grunig:    2-­‐way  symmetrical;  understanding  vs.  persuasion   •   Key  to  excellent  practice       Paying  Attention  to  the  Message   •   Exposure  not  =  attention,  memory,  understanding   •   Uses  and  gratification  theory:  surveillance,  entertain/diversion,  reinforcement,  decision   making   •   Passive:    attention  if  entertaining  or  diversion;  Need  style  and  creativity;  “IT  in  the   Toilet”   •   Active:    At  interest  stage;  search  for  more  sophisticated,  supplemental  info;  Search   illness   •   Multiple  messages,  multiple  channels  to  reach  all   •   Triggering  Event:    cause  to  act  on  latent  willingness  to  behave  in  a  certain  way  Ex.  H1N1;   Occupy  Wall  Street;  Open  House,  Boston  Tea  Party       Other  Attention  Concepts   •   Five  senses:    83%  learn  via  sight,  11%  hearing   •   Retain:    50%  retention  based  on  seeing  and  hearing   •   Multiple  tools:    IMC   •   Raise  need  level  upfront:    benefit:    Census  Bureau   •   Interest  at  beginning  of  message:    get  them;  tell  them;  summarize   •   Channeling:    reinforce  predispositions,  values   •   Prior  knowledge  and  interest,  pay  more  attention;  tap  current  events,  issues  of  concern       Understanding  the  Message   •   Communication:    transmit,  common  understanding  of  symbols:    Ex.  Differences  in   countries,  classes   th •   42%  Americans  lowest  literacy  level;  1  in  8  4  grade   •   Writing  for  clarity:       •   Flesch  readability:    Ex.  9th  grade  (most  magazines,  newspapers):    Random  100  words  4.2   sentences  and  142  syllables;  complex  sentences  >19  words;    wording  compensation  vs.   pay   •   Cloze  comprehension:    Fill  in  missing  words   •   Microsoft  program;    copy  test       Understanding  the  Message  (cont.)   •   Use  symbols,  acronyms,  slogans:  each  a  short-­‐hand  Branding  (Mercedes  Star),  Audio   (NFL  theme);  GASP,  NOW,  AIDS;  I’m  lovin’  it,  Death  Tax   •   Avoid  jargon:    Semantic  noise:    Ex.  attenuation  rates  (cell  phone)   •   Avoid  cliches,  hype  words:    world  class,  cutting  edge,110%   •   Avoid  euphemisms:    Ethnic  cleansing,  collateral  damage,  career  reassignment   •   Avoid  discriminatory  language:    Police  man  vs  officer       Believing  the  Message   •   Source  credibility:    knowledgeable,  expert  on  subject   •   Context:    Action  speak  louder  than  words:    Ex.  Buy  US  meeting  with  “Made  in  China”   cup   •   Involvement:    high,  what  is  said;  low,  who  says  it       Believing  the  Message  (cont.)   •   Predispositions:    Festinger’s  Cognitive  Dissonance   •   Won’t  believe  something  contrary  to  their  predispositions  unless   o   Situation  change:  gas  price  increase,  development  in  China,  India   o   New  information  about  new  developments:  Perception  of  China  toys  when   Mattel  admit  problems     o   Use  unexpected  communicator:    Chevron  use  conservationists       Remembering  the  Message   •   Repetition  (Redundancy)   •   Multiple  channels   •   Fight  entropy:    messages  lose  information  as  they  process  along   •   Truman:    Tell  them  what  you’re  going  to  tell  them;  tell  them;  tell  them  what  you  told   them       Acting  on  the  Message   •   Five-­‐Stage  Adoption  Process   o   Awareness   o   Interest   o   Evaluation   o   Trial     o   Adoption   •   Rogers:    Factors  Affecting  Adoption   •   Relative  advantage:    perceived  as  better   •   Compatibility:    consistent  with  values   •   Complexity:    difficult  to  use,  understand   •   Trialability:    experienced  on  a  limited  basis   •   Observability:    results  are  visable       Time  Factor:    Varies  with  product/idea   •   Innovators:    Venturesome,  try  new   •   Early  Adopters:    Savvy,  Keep  up,  opinion  leaders  for  friends   •   Early  Majority:    Deliberate,  pragmatic  approach   •   Late  Majority:    Skeptical,  somewhat  resistant   •   Laggards:    Very  traditional,  last  to  adopt       How  Decisions  Are  Influenced   •   Awareness:    Mass  media:    ads,  news,  features,  radio/TV  announcements;  support  with   eWOM,  web   •   Interest:    Mass  media,  more  detailed  info:    features,  web,  brochures;  meetings,   seminars   •   Evaluation,  Trial,  Adoption:    Personal  experience,  group  norms,  family/friend  opinions;   credible  sources,  experts  contact   •   WOM:    Word  of  Mouth    Ex.  P&G    Herbal  Essences  and  Old  Spice;  opinion  leade    


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