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Chapter 8 APR 231

by: Courtney Small

Chapter 8 APR 231 APR 231

Courtney Small

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Chapter 8 Notes from lecture
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
intro, public relations
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter  8:  Evaluation   Evaluation   •   Fourth  step  in  PR  process   •   The  systematic  assessment  of  a  program  and  its  results.    It  is  a  means  for  practitioners   to  offer  accountability  to  clients  and  to  themselves   •   Also,  way  to  improve  and  adopt  management  by  objectives       Objectives   •   Need  specific  objectives  to  measure  against   •   Evaluation  really  starts  in  planning   •   Iterative  process   •   Budget  for  evaluation  and  measurement;    1990s  about  1%;  now  about  4-­‐5%;  advocates   –  about  10%   •   Informational:  awareness,  info:  show  info  communicated   •   Motivational:  attitude,  behavior;  more  difficult       Objectives  Checklist   •   Was  the  activity  or  program  adequately  planned?   •   Did  the  recipients  of  the  message  understand  it?   •   How  could  the  program  strategy  have  been  more  effective?   •   Were  all  primary  and  secondary  audiences  reached?   •   Was  the  desired  organizational  objective  achieved?   •   What  unforeseen  circumstances  affected  the  success  of  the  program  or  activity?   •   Did  the  program  or  activity  fall  within  the  budget  set  for  it?   •   What  steps  can  be  taken  to  improve  the  success  of  similar  future  activities?       Lindenmann/Ketchum   •   Level  1:    Basic   •   Such  as  message  production,    distribution  and  placement   •   Doesn’t  tell  us  about  audience  processing       Measurement  of  Production   •   Measure  output  from  practitioners   •   Quantity  oriented:    50,000  brochures,  25  press  releases   •   Same  for  distribution  as  production:    distribute  brochures  (10,000  to  each  branch  office)   •   Objectives  for  placement  not  feasible       Measurement  of  Exposure   •   Compilation  of  clips,  radio/TV  time   •   Burelle/Luce:    monitor  numerous  media   •   Media  impressions:    Gross  impressions:    Article  in  150,000  circ  newspaper;  150,000   gross  impressions;  Issue  of  pass  along  (4X)   •   Basic  Web  Analytics:    Hits  on  Internet:    hits,  pages,  time   •   Advertising  equivalency  value/Dollar  value  (AVE);  declining  use   •   5  column  inchs  story,  $100  for  column  inch,  $500  AVE   •   Use  for  TV,  Radio    60  second  ad  cost  $2000;  AVE  $2000  for  60  sec  story   •   Issues  of  ad  equivalency:    PR  Value  3X   •   Weighted  media  cost:    Quality  of  media  neighborhood       Systematic  Tracking   •   Type  of  publication   •   Sources  quoted   •   Mention  of  key  copy  points:    content  analysis   •   Releases  sent/actually  published,  ROI   •   On-­‐line       Cost  per  person  or  cost  per  1000  (CPM)  and  Return  on  Investment  (ROI)   •   Per  person:    $5000  for  100,000,  5  cents  per  person   •   CPM:    5  cents  x  1,000=$50  per  1000   •   Compare  cost  of  advertising  vs.  PR   •   Return  on  Investment:    Spend  $500,000  get  $20  million  in  sales;  ROI  is  40  times  cost         Lindenmann/Ketchum   •   Level  2:    Intermediate   •   Move  beyond  simple  placement  to  levels  of  awareness/information       Measurement  of  Awareness  (and  Information)   •   Higher  level  of  evaluation   •   Require  survey  tools   o   Ex.  Day-­‐after  recall   o   Change  from  benchmark  or  baseline   o   Pre-­‐Post  test   •   Measure  whether  message  received,  attended  to,  understood  and  retained       Lindenmann/Ketchum   •   Level  3:    Advanced   •   Opinion  change   •   Attitude  change   •   Behavior  change       Measurement  of  Attitudes   •   Shift  in  valence  (+  or  -­‐)   •   Change  from  benchmark,  baseline   •   Pre-­‐Post  test       Measurement  of  Action  (Behavior)   •   Key  objective  usually  linked  to  behavior   •   Tracking  measurable  behaviors  such  as  orders,  calls,  800  numbers,  site  visits,  e-­‐mail   •   Sales   •   Attend:    Outside  factors,  Ex.  Symphony   Self-­‐reports  to  evaluate  (vote  intention)       Requests  and  800  Numbers   •   Responses  keyed  to  release   •   Calls,  response  cards,  box  numbers,  operator  numbers       Measurement  of  Supplemental  Activities   •   Communication  Audit:    12  months   •   Pilot  tests/Split  messages   •   Meetings/events;  evaluation  form   •   Newsletter  Readership   o   Content  analysis   o   Readership  interest  surveys   o   Article  recall   o   Advisory  boards    


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