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Bio 141, Weekly Notes

by: Peter Notetaker
Peter Notetaker

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Cellular Notes
Foundations of Modern Biol I
Dr. Carter
Class Notes




Popular in Foundations of Modern Biol I

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peter Notetaker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 141 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Modern Biol I in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Biology 141 Notes: Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis Electron transport chain: • ATP is made by moving electrons from a high energy level to low energy. • Theexergonicflowof electrons is coupled to transport H+ across the membrane (proton pump). Things to remember: • No carbon is involved in this process. Why? • Located in the inner membrane (cristae) of the mitochondria • The electronegativity in the electron transport chain increases from one electron carrier to the next. • The free energy decreases as the electrons move down the electron chain Multi-protein complexes: • Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) • Q-Ubiquinone *Lipid • Iron sulfur (Fe S) • Cytochromes Fe ETC overview: • H+ create a electrochemical gradient across the membrane • Electronegativity allows electron carriers to be oxidized and reduced • NADH drops 2e- at Flavin mononucleotide • FADH2 drops the 2e- at Iron sulfur (Fe S) • Final electron acceptor: oxygen Chemiosmosis: • H+ gradient is used to drive cellular work • H+ flow down the electrochemical gradient into the stator ATP synthase: • Rotor (moves). H+ can diffuse down the concentration down the rotor. The rotor has binding sites for the H+. When they bind to the rotor it allows the rotor to move. • When the rotor moves the internal rod moves • As the rod moves it generates a change in conformation (activation) of the catalytic knob • The H+ are released through the stator back into the matrix • Catalytic knob (enzyme activity). This knob phosphorylates ADP ATP Anaerobic respiration: • Happens in the absence of oxygen • Two paths are possible- provide different byproducts • Lactic acid • Ethanol Photosynthesis Light Dependent Reaction: • Have photosystems embedded in the thylakoid membrane • The photon excites the pigments • One pigment excites the pigment • adjacent to it and so on until they reach the special chlorophyll A • Special chlorophyll A- capable of losing electrons and gaining electrons quickly • The electrons are raised in the energy level and taken by the primary electron acceptor Light Dependent Reactions: • Photosystem II P680 • Photosystem I P700 • They are simultaneously absorbing light • There is photolysis • water is the source of electrons for Photosystem II • Plastocyanin is source of electrons for Photosystem I • Final electron acceptor is NADP+ reductase, which makes NADPH Important Concepts: • The primary acceptor is some molecule that accepts electrons before passing them down the ETC • Unknown exactly what it is • When electrons are passed to the cytochrome complex, the energy is used to pump 4 Hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space • The build up of hydrogen ions (from the ETC and from the lysis of water) creates the proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane • That force is used to make ATP molecules in the stroma with ATP synthase


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