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Biology 1320

by: Corina Johnson

Biology 1320 10584

Corina Johnson

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About this Document

circulatory system
General Biology
Dr. Lawrence Williams
Class Notes
Science, Biology
25 ?




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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corina Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10584 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM FUNCTION: 1. Circulate oxygen and carbon dioxide for gas exchange. 2. Distribute nutrients to tissues. 3. Distribute defensive cells and molecules. 4. Distribute hormones. 5. Circulate blood to kidneys for cleansing. 6. Redistribution of heat and temperature regulation. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM STRUCTURE: 1. Vascular fluid (cellular components or formed elements and plasma). 2. Pump (heart). 3. Vessels. Variety of systems • Circulate ambient fluid (sponges). • Use gastrovascular cavity. • Have a heart and vessels: – Open circulatory system; all body fluids mix. – Closed circulatory system; have isolation of body fluids into: • Blood • Cellular fluid • Interstitial fluid STRUCTURE: 1. Vascular fluid (cellular components or formed elements and plasma). 2. Pump (heart). 3. Vessels. Composition of Vascular Fluid Vessels HEART TYPES: NEUROGENIC; nervous system initiates heart beat. Found in Fishes, Lampreys, Hagfishes, and Invertebrates. MYOGENIC; heart generates its own heart beat. Rate and force of contraction is regulated by the nervous system. Found in Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. CIRCULATION (crocodilian, avian and mammalian) 4-chambered MYOGENIC HEART: structure and function. Capillary activity; nutrients and gases. CAPILLARY; blood flow regulation CAPILLARY; fluid exchange Vertebrate Circulatory Systems 2-Chambered heart 3-chambered heart 4-chambered heart Circulatory System control and regulation • Heart rate and force of contraction • Blood pressure • Clotting Heart rate and force of contraction Response is to carbon dioxide (change in pH): The cardiac control center (CCC) in the medulla oblongata (brain stem) monitors cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). If Carbon Dioxide elevates (= drop in pH) CSF becomes acidic the the CCC responds. Impulses are generated in the sympathetic NS to the heart to increase rate and force of contraction. Blood flow increases (there is a simultaneous increase in ventilation of the lungs). Blood pressure Drop in blood pressure may occur and is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid arteries. Impulses are received in the CCC. In response, impulses are sent to the smooth muscles of the arteries and arterioles to contract. This decreases the volume of the vascular system and elevates blood pressure. How can blood pressure drop? Clotting • Platelets are important in initiation of clotting. • Also, there is a series of clotting factors (I through X). CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE


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