HIST 100 Late Roman Republic
HIST 100 Late Roman Republic 70142 - HIST 100 - 013
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70142 - HIST 100 - 013 at George Mason University taught by Susan E Schulze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Late Roman Republic Transformation from Republic to Monarchy By 145BC, the results of the wars are: o Control over ¾ of Mediterranean trade: Black Sea grain. Rome now controls the lion’s share of trade in the empire, they get ¾ of the overall profit of trade. They have control over Black Sea grain, which a tool for administration of the state. The grain allows Rome to inexpensively feed their army and their people to keep them happy. o Transfer of landownership to elite > displacement and disenfranchisement of plebeians. (Land = Wealth. Wealth = Power) Long wars took away the men of the families that primarily worked on the farms. When the men are called to war, the battalion is normally made of family and neighbors of a specific area. If the entire battalion was wiped out, then all the men in the area were gone. Women owning the farms go into debt when they have to pay workers to work the fields (because the men of the household are away for war) and they have to take out loans to pay workers. If you couldn’t pay back the loans, then the loan holder would take your stuff (timocracy – power to the land holders). Or people would abandon their farms because of emotional distress of losing the men of the family and then wealthy Patricians and Plebeians would buy them up. Farming Plebeians are now displaced and disenfranchised, so they move to the cities of Rome to work in Roman ‘factories.’ o Expansion of slave labor – There were so many prisoners of war that they were turned into slaves. The entire economic base of Rome moved from wage based to slave based. Slaves could buy their freedom, but when they were free they were replaced by another slave so the owner wouldn’t have to pay them. o Reaction to ^^^ Gracchi Reform Movement o Gracchi Brothers: Tiberius (133132BC) and Gaius (121BC) – Plebeians, their uncle was Scipio Africanus. They’re Plebeians because their father was a pleb and their mom was a patrician. They fought in the Macedonian wars and when they were walking back they saw how many farms were abandoned. They were afraid that the very empire of Rome was in danger. Since they are close to an important family, they made a push for reform. Tiberius campaigns for the office of the Tribune, he says he will pass the land reform bill (a cap on how much land a person could own, a backlash to the transfer of ownership before, all land taken would be distributed to the people who used to own the land to allow them back into the trade). Tiberius gets elected, the Plebeian government section approves of his bill but the Patrician senate knocks it down. Tiberius then does something what historians and even the Romans question. He calls for a universal plebiscite, the Patrician senate (optimate) says they it’s out of the constitution to do it. Tiberius does it and the land reform bill is put through. o Reaction to ^^ Increased polarization of the optimate (most highly powerful) and populare (most popular/populous) factions. Basically like the modern Republican vs. Democrat. When each consul is elected, if a populare is elected then they try to remove all the optimate legislation to make it easier for populare legislation to rule. Vice versa for a optimate leader removing populare legislation) o Led to Alienation (within historiography – When you have an individual or a group that holds sovereign authority transfers piece by piece their sovereign authority to another. The product of this is a realignment of power, the group that once held authority now doesn’t have authority. They never know they’re doing it to themselves) of the optimate and populare transfer power to the consuls o Which then led to the strengthening of the executive branch > Strongman Rule – The republic is turning to a monarchy with one strong military leader. Also during this time, if a man is in the military for 20 years they are given an allotment of land to enfranchise the people who lost their land before. Marius (107BC) Populare – Held office for 7 straight terms. Sulla (88BC) Optimate – Marius’s lieutenant. Sulla starts a civil war against Marius (who is old by the time this happens) and he gains control. First thing he does is kill 300 Populare senators and give all their wealth to Optimate. Sulla began to purge the Populare and forcing all of them to leave, giving all the land and wealth and farms to Optimate. Sulla is trying to save the republic in his own way. Sulla retires in 79BC and is marked as the start of sole rule. The next ruler was Julius Caesar. KEY: Processes Authors People Key Words Legal document/charter (written as Lex (law) the name of the person who wrote it) Basic structure of tribes: Kin Groups, direct family (parents, siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.). Kin groups linked together by marriage creates a clan. Each clan is headed by a patriarch, the male of the highest authority. In the era of kings there were 16 Patrician clans. The patriarchs meet at the senatus, a meeting of old dudes, and they vote one patriarch to be the leader, called the Rex. The Rex is the monarch, has the right to make law. The right to be in the senatus is determined by the purity of their Patrician blood. Classical Warfare In old times, wars were found on a cyclical cycle. Wars were found based on agricultural seasons, battles were fought when the harvest was plenty so they could steal all their resources. But when the new long wars came into play, the men were away for months and years. Quiz format: First two questions about the main timeline, what came in what order. Other questions will ask about processes of change in the time period (ex. Classical Antiquity times, Mediterranean Colonization). Identify a stage in the process to elaborate on, cause and effect, consequences (ex. Greeks taking over most of Europe on the coasts to get food and control trade). Identify a person/people who influenced the times and what was their cause and effect on the time (ex. Ashur Nasir Pal II, Greeks, Phoenicians, Etruscans, but must be different than in the stage)
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