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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corina Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10584 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
MUSCULAR SYSTEM FUNCTION: 1. Locomotion (works with the articulating skeleton. Requires moveable joints). 2. Movement within the organism; circulatory fluid and food. 3. Alter diameter of vessels and tubes. 4. Generate heat. MUSCULAR TISSUE TYPES: 1. Skeletal (somatic or striated or voluntary). 2. Smooth (involuntary). 3. Cardiac (or heart) muscle. MUSCULAR TISSUE Skeletal (voluntary or somatic or striated); strong contractions, but fatigues easily. Muscle attached to skeleton for locomotion. MUSCULAR TISSUE Smooth (involuntary); mild contractions, but slow to fatigue. Found on certain blood vessels, respiratory tract, digestive system, many invertebrates. MUSCULAR TISSUE Cardiac; strong contractions and great sustained activity. Heart muscle. The structure of muscle and how muscular tissue works. MOTOR UNIT Neuromuscular junction RELAXED MUSCLE CONDITIONS 1. No impulse from nerve. 2. Calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic reticulum), so there is no calcium around the sarcomeres. 3. ATP, energy molecules, intact. 4. Attachment sites on actin covered. Neuromuscular junction CONTRACTING MUSCLE CONDITIONS 1. Impulse generated and transmitted down nerve to neuromuscular junction. Impulse continues into muscle cell through tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. Membrane of SR leaks calcium ions into sarcomeres. 3. Calcium in sarcomere has 2 actions: 1. Actin attachment sites are exposed and myosin hooks connect to actin. 2. ATP changed to ADP + P releasing energy moving myosin hooks pulling actin. BONES and MUSCLES Bones of the skeleton must articulate. Joints allow articulation. Ligaments join bones across joints. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons to affect movement of bones. BONES and MUSCLES Muscles work together, sometimes in groups. Many muscles oppose each other in their action. Such muscles are antagonists. BONES and MUSCLES There are different kinds of joints: hinge, ball and socket, gliding, fused. Muscle parts: origin, insertion, body. Muscular movement of the skeleton works as levers. There are three kinds of levers: 1st class lever 2nd class lever 3rd class lever F = force (arrows); R = resistance NAMING MUSCLES • Origin and insertion: sternomastoid • Shape: deltoid • Number of heads (origins): triceps • Location: pectoralis • Direction of fibers: oblique or transversus • Function: adductor or abductor; depressor labii inferioralis • Size: maximus, minimus: Gluteous maximus, gluteous minimus.
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