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BSC 2/15 week of 2/22

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 2/15 week of 2/22 BSC 215

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

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Notes for the week of 2/22/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Tuesday, February 23, 2016 Lecture 10 (con’t) Histology II - Cartilage • resists tension and compression • tough but flexible • contains a lot of fluid • Hyaline Cartilage - most abundant - made of mostly thing collagen fibers, a few chondrocytes - made of epiphyseal plates (hyaline cartilage tissue found at the end of long bones; allows bones to grow in length) • Elastic Cartilage - rich in elastin fibers • Fibrocartilage - bundles of collagen - resists compression - Muscle Tissue • Cells: Myocytes (or muscle fibers) - excitable (respond to electrical or chemical stimulus) - Cytoplasm is filled with myofilament proteins (allow muscles to contract) • ECM: endomesium 3 types: • - Skeletal - long, cylindrical cells; multi-nucleated; obvious striations - Cardiac - branching cells; uni- or bi-nucleated; obvious striations - Smooth - fusiform cells; uni-nucleated; no striations 1 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 - Nervous Tissue • 2 cell types: - Neurons (communicate through electrical impulses) • stellate shape • cell body contains nucleus and organelles • dendrites receive impulses - usually many • axons transmit impulses - usually only one axon - Neuroglia (support neurons) • The ECM is mostly ground substance (fluid with dissolved stuff) - Organ - two or more tissues that combine for a common structure and function • ex. skeletal muscles (contains muscle and connective tissues) • The rest of LO5 will be covered later. 2 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 Lecture 11 Bone Tissue - Functions of the Skeletal System • support • protection • movement • mineral storage and homeostasis - calcium, phosphorous, magnesium • acid-base balance - buffers can be derived from chemicals found in the bones • adipose tissue storage - yellow bone marrow • blood cell formation - red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells - Classification of Bones by Shape • The average adult has 206 bones. • Long bones - length > width • Short bones - length = width • Flat bones - thin and broad • Irregular bones - don’t fit in any of the above categories; irregularly shaped • Sesamoid bones - bones that are found within tendons • Wormian (sutural) bones - bones found within skull sutures - Anatomy of Long Bones • Periosteum - outer dense irregular collagneous layer + inner osteogenic layer - Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers - collagen fibers that extend into the bone matrix 1 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 • Diaphysis - shaft/long part of the bone • Epiphysis - found on either side of the diaphysis (ends of bone) • Medullary cavity - stores bone marrow • Articular cartilage (hyaline) - covers surface that forms joints along with lubricating fluid (allows for ease of movement) • Nutrient foramina - small holes in bone tissue that allow blood vessels to penetrate • Endosteum - reticular connective tissue that lines marrow cavities (medullary cavity) and covers trabecular surfaces of spongy bone • Epiphyseal plate/line - hyaline cartilage, zone of bone elongation - You have a plate when you are young (bones are growing) and a line when you are old. • Compact vs. Spongy Bone - Compact - dense osseous tissue, encloses medullary cavity - Spongy (cancellous) - found within the ends of long bones and in the inner portion of short, flat, and irregular bones • always surrounded by compact bone • contains bone marrow • bony struts (lines that form the sponginess) - trabeculae - Anatomy of Flat Bones • surrounded by periosteum • Diploe - layer of spongy bone sandwiched between 2 compact bone layers - only found in flat bones - tribeculae are lines with endosteum (house bone marrow) • Inner compact bone - covered with periosteum layer - Red and Yellow Bone Marrow • Red - Hematopoietic cells - produce blood cells 2 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 - Hematopoiesis - the process of producing blood cells • Yellow - stores triglycerides in adults • Red marrow decreases and yellow increases as a person ages. - Osseous Tissue (another name for bones) • Cells - osteogenic cells - undifferentiated stem cells; makes the bone cells • highly mitotically active (reproduce a lot) • found in periosteum and endosteum • some differentiate into osteoblasts (some remain osteogenic stem cells) - osteoblasts - build bone • The bone is usually build on a cartilage framework. • don’t undergo cell division • secrete collagen fibers that form bone matrix - These fibers become encrusted with minerals. - Osteoblasts are trapped in hardening matrix and become osteocytes. - osteocytes - mature osteoblasts that maintain the ECM • Osteogenic, osteoblasts, and osteocytes are from the same lineage but at different developmental stages. • mature bone cells trapped in lacunae • maintain bone matrix and signal for bone repair/remodleing - osteoclasts - dissolve bone ECM different origin than the other 3 types of bone cells • • formed from blood cell lineages • found in reabsorption bays • ruffled border 3 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 • ECM - inorganic matrix • 65% of ECM • hydroxyapatite crystals (calcium and phosphorous) • bicarbonate (buffer) - organic matrix (osteoid) 35% of ECM • • collagen fibers • proteoglycans, GAGs, glycoproteins 4 Thursday, February 25, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 11 con’t Bone Tissue - Structures of Compact vs. Spongy Bone • Spongy bone is always surrounded by compact bone. • Spongy bone - contains trabeculae (bony struts) - houses bone marrow (not all spongy bone contains bone marrow) - gets nutrients through blood vessels - To summarize: • the major structural difference is that spongy bone does not have a haversion canal or osteons that surround the haversion canal • The blood supply is obtained from compact bone. • Compact bone - osteocytes within lacunae - canaliculi connect lacunae - Haversion canal - found in the central area of the osteon; houses blood vessels and nerves • vessels pass through gap junctions and canaliculi to neighboring osteocytes - hard, crystallized inorganic matrix - all bones are surrounded by a periosteum • perforating fibers hold the periosteum onto the bone - osteoclasts dissolve bone to form nutrient foramina (allow capillaries and nerves to pass through compact bone) - interstitial lamella - between osteons - circumferential lamella - under periosteum - concentric lamella - surrounds osteons 1 Thursday, February 25, 2016 - To summarize: • osteon - elongated cylinder of concentric lamella rings • collagen fibers form organic ECM and hydroxyapatite crystals form inorganic ECM - Collage fibers in adjacent lamella twist in opposite directions • structures found in the central canal - blood vessels and nerves • Osteoblasts secrete collagen, become osteoclasts trapped on borders between lamella after mineralization. • Compact and spongy bone are living tissues. 2 Thursday, February 25, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 12 Bone Tissue II - Ossification / Osteogenesis - formation of bone Intramembranous ossification • - occurs in flat bones of skull and clavicle - The starting material is the membrane of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyme). Endochondral ossification • - occurs in the rest of the bones - The starting material is a hyaline cartilage model. • Both methods start with primary woven bones (collagen fibers, little inorganic matrix) - Primary woven bone mature into secondary lamellar bone (mostly inorganic matrix and less organic) • Primary (woven) bone - irregular arrangement of collagen fibers - abundant osteocytes, little inorganic matrix - present during embryonic development and fracture repair - absorbed by osteoclasts and replaced with secondary bone • Secondary (lamellar) bone - higher percentage of inorganic matrix (this makes it stronger) - fully formed lamella with collagen fibers - Intramembranous Ossifications • Mesenchyme cells condense into soft tissue permeated with blood vessels (the membrane). • Mesenchyme cells differentiate into osteogenic cells, line up along blood vessels, and become osteoblasts, secreting collagen into primary ossification centers. 1 Thursday, February 25, 2016 • Spongy bone is formed by continuous trabeculae formation. - At the same time, more mesenchyme adjacent to the spongy bone condense to form periosteum. - Osteoblasts beneath the periosteum condense to form compact bone. - Endochondral Ossification • 1. Hyaline cartilage model is formed by chondroblasts in perichondrium membrane. • 2. Chondroblasts in perichondrium differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit a bone collar around the shaft that grows toward the epiphyseal plates (perichondrium becomes periosteum). - Simultaneously, internal chondrocytes inflate and die in primary ossification center, thin walls between them calcify, leaving cavities surrounded by calcified cartilage. • 3. Osteoclasts arrive through the blood supply (they are derived from white blood cells), digest external and internal calcified tissue, creating the primary marrow cavity. Osteoblasts also arrive and deposit layers of bone. Both cell types follow chondrocyte death, replacing cartilage with bone. • 4. Secondary ossification centers develop in epiphyses, creating a secondary marrow cavity. - After birth, epiphysis cavities fill with spongy bone. • 5. Hyalin cartilage is limited to the epiphyseal plate where elongation occurs until late teens, and then is replaced by bone to form the epiphyseal line. • 6. Osteoclasts continue to hollow out the diaphysis. Articular cartilage remains on the parts of the bone that form joints. - Longitudinal vs. Appositional Growth • These are both continuations of ossification. • Longitudinal - chondrocyte division in epiphyseal plates - increase in length - zone of reserve hyaline cartilage - population of reserve chondroblasts which can continue building cartilage if needed - zone of cell proliferation 2 Thursday, February 25, 2016 - zone of cell hypertrophy - mature, expanded chondrocytes • The cells expand and then they die. The spaces the cells leave will be bigger because the cells expand and then the osteoclasts have less bone to dissolve. - zone of cell calcification - dead, calcified chondrocytes - zone of ossification - osteoblasts deposit bone tissue that becomes entrapped in osteocytes • Appositional - osteoblasts under periosteum deposit new compact bone - increase in width - similar to intramembranous ossification and bone remodeling - addition of osteoclasts and secondary bone formation (osteons) around blood vessels to form Haversion canals - Hormones that affect bone growth • hormone - chemical secreted into the blood by endocrine glands or cells that affect various aspects of target cell physiology • Growth Hormone - increases the rate of mitosis of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate and activity of osteogenic cells and osteoblasts • Testosterone - increases the rate of appositional growth; accelerates closure of epiphyseal plate (which stops growth) • Estrogen - increases the rate of longitudinal growth; accelerates the closure of the epiphyseal plate (faster than testosterone) 3


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