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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corina Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10584 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
The Living Cell •Acid-base homeostasis (pH). •Movement of matter •Cell membrane structure and activity. Acid-base homeostasis (pH). • Acid: a H ion or proton donor. • Base: Hydroxide ion donor. • Salt: chemical compound resulting from the combination of an acid and a base. • pH: measure of acidity (using the pH scale). • Buffers: moderation of pH. Movement of matter 1. Brownian movement: constant, random movement because all matter has energy. Movement of matter 2. Simple diffusion: matter moving down a concentration gradient. Movement of matter 3. Hypotonic, Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Permeability, Osmosis. Movement of matter Movement across membranes 1. Simple diffusion (channels). 2. Facilitated transport (“helper” proteins). Movement of matter Movement across membranes 3. Active transport (pumping proteins). 4. Endocytosis: phagocytosis or pinocytosis. 5. Exocytosis. • Membrane structure and function is described by the Fluid Mosaic Model, but first is the old, static model. Protein Lipid “Sandwich” ENERGY • Laws of thermodynamics – First law: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it is transferred. – Second law: energy transfers increase entropy (= disorder). Living things must function within the bounds of these laws. Energy & Living Things 1. Metabolism requires energy input. 2. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy “currency” of living systems. Energy & Living Things 3. Enzymes (proteins that act as biological catalysts) are involved in chemical reactions. 4. Metabolic reactions occur as COUPLED REACTIONS. Using ATP • Chemical reactions and energy. • Enzymes and chemical reactions. • Coupled reactions and energy. Chemical reactions Chemical reactions and Enzymes Enzymes lower activation energy COUPLED REACTIONS Energy of Life Cellular Respiration has three general steps. 1. GLYCOLYSIS 2. KREB’S CYCLE (CITRIC ACID CYCLE) 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT Cellular Respiration: step 1 • Glycolsys : Glucose (6-C sugar) is broken down into two pyruvates (3-C sugars). Cellular Respiration: step 2 • Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle): pyruvate is completely broken down into carbon dioxide as high energy electrons are released and captured. Cellular Respiration: step 3 • Electron Transport System (ETS): uses high energy electrons to make ATPs. This is making of ATPs in the presence of oxygen. • ATP is made during chemiosmosis, a process called OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION. Electron Transport System A e- B e- donor acceptor Ce- donor acceptor Cellular Respiration Equation Combustion of Glucose to carbon dioxide and water. Releases Free Energy. 686 kcal of energy released: about 263 kcal trapped in ATP and 423 lost as heat. Three steps of Cellular Respiration: glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, ETS • Purpose is to release and capture free energy in: – ATP molecules – High energy electrons on electron transport molecules to take to the ETS Cellular Respiration Overview Overview of GLYCOLYSIS • NOTE: – Production of ATP and high energy e- transport. – Obeys laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics and energy of life The rest of GLYCOLYSIS Overview of Kreb’s Cycle Kreb’s Cycle Kreb’s Cycle Kreb’s Cycle Electron Transport System and Chemiosmosis Cellular Respiration Overview Not just a Glucose pathway ATP Yield Glycolysis always the same? Facultative aerobes: Oxygen present: cellular respiration Oxygen absent: Incomplete glycolysis results in lactic acid or ethanol. Obligatory aerobes: Oxygen present: cellular respiration Oxygen absent: death Obligatory anaerobes: Oxygen present: death Oxygen absent: energy production PHOTOSYNTHESIS 6CO 2 6HOH ------> C H 06 12 6 + 6O 2 • Energy input from the sun (solar energy). • Requires special plant pigment: Chlorophyll • The key: ENERGIZED ELECTRONS ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Two phases of Photosynthesis LIGHT DEPENDENT PHASE Two phases of Photosynthesis LIGHT INDEPENDENT PHASE LIGHT DEPENDENT PHASE Sunlight energy used Water split to H ions, electrons, and oxygen (photolysis) ATP and NADPH formed LIGHT INDEPENDENT PHASE Photosynthesis: summary and fate of Glucose Importance of Photosynthesis Food: -Renewable (autotrophs, heterotrophs) -Trophic structure Carbon dioxide: -Reduces green house effect (related to global warming) Oxygen: -Evolution of cellular respiration -Development of high atmospheric Ozone -Accumulation in atmosphere causes permanent change (from reducing to oxidizing atmosphere) Life Terminology of Genetics
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