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Biology 1310

by: Corina Johnson

Biology 1310 10584

Corina Johnson

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About this Document

Water and O Chemical Notes
General Biology
Dr. Lawrence Williams
Class Notes
Science, Biology
25 ?




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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corina Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10584 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lawrence Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Properties of Water 1. High specific heat. 2. High heat of vaporization. 3. Polar molecule: universal solvent, cohesion, high surface tension. 4. Low viscosity. 5. Non-compressible. 6. Unique density property. INORGANIC MOLECULES IN WATER • DISASSOCIATION • ACIDS, BASES, SALTS • pH and buffers ORGANIC MOLECULES ORGANIC MOLECULES Important elements are C, H, O, N, P, S. Also have trace elements: Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Copper, and others. Organic molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids (fats and oils) 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids CARBOHYDRATES • Made of C, H, O. General formula of (C1H 2 1 n • Types of carbohydrates: – Monosaccharides (simple sugars) – Disaccharides (two sugars) – Polysaccharides (many sugars) Function: varies, but is the most important energy molecule in living things. Another lesson in the lesson Reactions: organic molecules Reactions: organic molecules Condensation Hydrolysis (dehydration) anabolic catabolic (build up) (break down) endergonic exergonic (energy consuming) (energy releasing) LIPIDS • Formed of C, H, O with many H. Have the acidic functional group COOH (carboxyl group). • Function: cell and other membranes Plants: primarily cell and other membranes, protection against desiccation. Animals: energy storage, lubrication of some vertebrates (hair, feathers), insulation, cushioning. Lipid Structure • Components –Glycerol –Fatty acids saturated unsaturated Proteins • Made of C, H, O with N, S, P and are polymers of amino acids. Have carboxyl and amino (NH ) groups. 3 • Function: – Structural: skeletal support – Movement: muscle – Cell membrane components: receptors, pathways for crossing membranes, identification, enzymes. Amino Acids Protein Structure • Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids. • Secondary structure is the alpha helix (and may lead to pleated sheeting). • Tertiary structure is 3-D structure (may include folding). • Quaternary structure is combining of two or more molecules together Functionality of Proteins • The effects of temperature and pH (acid and base balance). Nucleic acids Types • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is the molecule that stores genetic information. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) which includes different types that do the work of using DNA information to make proteins. RNA includes messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA. • BOTH ARE CHAINS OF NUCELOTIDES. Nucleotide DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid • Is double stranded. • Nitrogenous bases are guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine (no uracil). • Is the hereditary storage molecule. DNA Double Helix RNA, ribonucleic acid • Is single stranded. • Nitrogenous bases are guanine, adenine, cytosine, and uracil (no thymine). • Is the “work” molecule. • Different types of RNA: messenger, ribosomal, and transfer


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