Need to Know Information for Chapter 9
Need to Know Information for Chapter 9 PSYC 3206-003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206-003 at East Carolina University taught by Gary J. Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Need to Know for Chapter 9 1.Obesity and body image: - Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period. - Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. This characteristic lasts through adulthood. - African American boys and girls grow faster than white children. - The average 10-year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40 years ago. - Mexican American girls have more body fat than white girls. - In the U.S. about 17% of children between the ages of 2 and 19 are obese and another 16.5% are overweight. - Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls. - It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non- Hispanic black girls. - BODY IMAGE: how one believes one looks. - Body image becomes important early in middle childhood, especially for girls. - Body image can develop into eating disorders in adolescence. - Obesity often results from an inherited tendency aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the wrong kinds of food. Children are more likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents. 2.Illness in Middle Childhood: - ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS: Occasional, short-term conditions, such as infections and warts. - Six or even seven bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses are typical as germs pass among children at school or play. - CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS: physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that persist for 3 months or more. - 12.8% of U.S. children have or are at risk of developing a chronic medical condition. - ASTHMA: a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. - U.S. has historically high level of children with asthma. About 12% of children. - Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely in black children than white children. - Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that increases the risk of developing asthma even though they do not know the real cause. - Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well. - DIABETES: one of the most common diseases in school- aged children. Characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood as a result of defective insulin production, ineffective insulin action, or both. - Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin deficiency that occurs when insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. - Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among school-age U.S. children. - 88% of brain injuries could be prevented by using helmets. - High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines. 3.Cognitive Advances: - CONCRETE OPERATIONS: When a child can use the mental operations, such as reasoning, to solve concrete (actual) problems. Better use of maps and models. - SPATIAL THINKING: A child can use a map or model to help them search for a hidden object and can give someone else directions for finding the object. They can find their way to and from school, can estimate distances, and can judge how long it will take them to go from one place to another. - CAUSE AND EFFECT: A child knows which physical attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will affect the result (number or objects matter but color does not). However, they do not know which spatial factors make a difference (placement of objects). - CATEGORIZATION: Being able to sort objects into categories, such as shape, color, or both. They know that a subclass (roses) have fewer members than the class that it is part of (flowers). - SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE: Being able to arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to the longest, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into the proper place. Knowing the difference between lengths and which ones are longer than others. - INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: being able to solve both inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular premises) are less certain than deductive conclusions (based on general premises). Inductive: making observations about particular members of a class of people, animals, objects, or events, and then drawing conclusions about the class as a whole. Ex:// If a neighbor’s dog barks, and another neighbor’s dog barks, then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn. Deductive: starts with a general statement about a class and applies it to particular members of the class. Ex:// if the belief is that all dogs bark, and a new dog comes along, it would be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark. - CONSERVATION: A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount of clay (conservation of substance). That same child at age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the same. Not until early adolescence will he understand that they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped into a glass of water. Horizontal decalage: The inability to transfer knowledge of conservation. Liquids vs. solids - NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS: When a child can count in their head, can add by counting up from the smaller number, and can do simple story problems. - CLASS INCLUSION: the ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts, and to understand the categories within a whole. 4.Moral Reasoning: - Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three stages. He argued that children move gradually from one stage to another, at varying ages. - THE FIRST STAGE: from ages 2-7 and is based on rigid obedience to authority. Young children are egocentric and cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue. They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed, that behavior is either right or wrong, and that offense deserves punishment. - THE SECOND STAGE: ages 7 or 8- 10 or 11 and is characterized by increasing flexibility. Children begin to develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or equal treatment for all. They are able to consider more than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle judgements. - THE THIRD STAGE: around age 11 or 12. The belief that everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of equity. According to Piaget, a child of this age might say that a 2-year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10- year old. 5.Memory Aides: - SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the ability to deliberately direct one’s attention and shut out distractions. - WORKING MEMORY: involves the short-term storage of information that is being actively processed, like mental workspace. Ex:// if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is, you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest. - METAMEMORY: knowledge about the processes of memory. Can be thought of thinking about memory. - MNEMONICS: a strategy to aid memory (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally). The most common is the use of external memory aids. - EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS: prompts by something outside the person. - REHEARSAL: Saying a telephone number over and over after looking it up is a form of rehearsal, or conscious repetition. - ORGANIZATION: mentally placing information into categories (such as animals, furniture, vehicles, and clothing) to make it easier to recall. 6.Psychometric Approach – Intelligence: - WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC-IV): The most widely used individual test. It is used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and performance abilities, yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space. Pinpoint a child’s strengths and help diagnose specific problems. - OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OthAT8): has levels for kindergarten through 12 grade. Children are asked to classify items, show an understanding of verbal and numerical concepts, display general information, and follow directions. - Both heredity and environment influence intelligence. 7.IQ Controversy: - Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence. - BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Brain imaging research shows a moderate correlation between brain size or amount of gray matter and general intelligence, especially reasoning and problem solving abilities. - SCHOOLING: schooling seems to increase tested intelligence. Children who entered school late, lost as many as 5 IQ points each year. IQ scores also drop during summer vacation. - RACE/ETHNICITY AND SES: leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities. Gap has narrowed between test scores between white and black children as well as Hispanic American children. The strength of genetic influence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status. - CULTURE: Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another. IQ tests vary between cultures because of this. 8.Gardener’s View on Intelligence: - LINGUISTIC: Ability to use and understand words and nuances of meaning. (writing, editing, translating) - LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL: Ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems. (science, business, medicine) - SPATIAL: Ability to find one’s way around in an environment and judge relationships between objects in space. (architecture, carpentry, city planning) - MUSICAL: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm. (musical composition, conducting) - BODILY-KINESTHETIC: Ability to move with precision. (dancing, athletics, surgery) - INTERPERSONAL: Ability to understand and communicate with others. (teaching, acting, politics) - INTRAPERSONAL: Ability to understand the self. (counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership) - NATURALIST: Ability to distinguish species and their characteristics. (hunting, fishing, farming, gardening, cooking) 9.Pragmatics: - Pragmatics: the social context of language. - Includes both conversational and narrative skills. - GENDER DIFFERENCES: study in London with 4 th graders: when boys and girls worked together, boys used more controlling statements and negative interruptions, whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative, conciliatory way. 10. Congressional Acts on Education: - THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001: emphasizes accountability, expanded parental options, local control, and flexibility. The intent is to funnel federal funding to research-based programs and practices, with special emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually. 11. Children with Learning Problems: - INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: significantly subnormal cognitive functioning. Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less. Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation. In most cases, the cause is unknown. - LEARNING DISORDER: The two most commonly diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning problems are Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility, impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and inappropriate over-activity. - LEARNING DISABILITIES: disorders that interfere with specific aspects of school achievement, such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, or mathematics. Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD. - DYSLEXIA: developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age. - INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT: ensures a free, appropriate public education for all children with disabilities. - INCLUSION PROGRAMS: programs in which children with special needs are included in the regular classroom. (integrating disabled and non-disabled children) 12. Gifted Children: - High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130 or higher. Generally excludes highly creative children, children from minority groups, and children with specific aptitudes. - ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS: broadens knowledge through classroom activities, research activities, and field trips. - ACCELERATION PROGRAMS: speeds up education through grade skipping, fast-paced classes, or advanced classes. 13. Defining and Measuring Creativity: - There are two kinds of thinking: Convergent and Divergent - CONVERGENT: The kind that IQ tests measure. These are looking for a single answer.
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