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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Strand on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 102 010 at Western Kentucky University taught by Chunmei Du in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see world history II in History at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Ch.15 Way of the World: A brief History with Sources ***Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science (1450- 1750) Globalization of Christianity -Western Christendom *Martin Luther (1486-1546) -New path of salvation; faith rather than works; acts or rituals of the Catholic Church -Commoners reading scriptures vs. Priests interruptions in Latin text *Wars of Religion: Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) *Catholic Counter Reformation: The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Christianity Outward Bound *”In search of Christians and spices” *Catholicism became a world religion in the 16 century -Catholic missionaries to the new world and the Philippines and Protestant pilgrims to N. America. Conversion & Adaption in Spanish Americas *Conquest & Conservation -Convinced the God of the Christians must be stronger than their traditional Gods -Millions in the New World converted *Resistance and Revival of pre-Hispanic religious tradition An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits -Why didn’t Christianity find a way to get a foothold in China? (Few hundred converts for the 300 million people) *Ming (1368-1644) & Qing (1644-1912) -Never in danger of being taken over by the west before 1800 -Centralized Bureaucracy -Inter- regional & international trade; New World crops/silver -Chinese culture & religions: Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism *Matteo Rico (1552-1610) and the Chinese elite -Jesuits Approach: Localization (language, dress) target officials, tolerate Confucian practices (Confucian temples & Ancestor reverence) Making Christianity Chinese -Annunciation: Angel informs Mary she will be the mother of Jesus -Virgin Mary or Guanyin, the Chinese Buddhist goddess of mercy & compassion Emperor Kangxi vs. the Pope: Rites Controversy -oppositions from orthodox Catholicism; idolatry -conflicts between the pope and the Kangxi emperor over authority *****1724 Christianity Outlawed**** Success or Failure? -Success in the New World Empires -Defeated indigenous population -Mass conversion -Failure in East Asian Empires -Strong local regimes -initial success, followed by banning India: Bridging the Hindu (Muslims Divided) -Break with elite Hindu tradition: Bhakti movement -Guru Nanak (1469-1539) -Sikhism: blended Islam & Hinduism in the Punjab region of the northern India, new religious tradition Expansion & Renewal in the Islamic World -Syncretism: Sufi mystics, Koranic scholars, Muslim merchants in Africa & Asia -Orthodox reactions & revivalist movement: Wahhabi Islam A New Way of thinking: The Birth of Modern Science *The question of origins: why Europe? -autonomous universities vs. Madrassas & Confucian learning -Knowledge from other cultures -link w/ the voyages of discovery -link w/ expansion of print culture & reading -Science as Cultural Revolution -Ptolemy’s universe -Copernicus, Kepler & Galileo -Isaac Newton -Accommodating faith & tradition with science th *Science & Enlightenment in the 18 century -Continuity from the Scientific Revolution: -method of reasoning to discover the laws that govern the universe expanded to society -Challenge existing dogmas & authorities -Enlightenment: -reject religious dogma (teachings) & intolerance -Question political absolutism (Authoritarian Rule, divine right of Kings, and aristocratic privileges) The Philosophes -Who are the Philosophes? Cosmopolitan public intellectuals (men of letters) -committed to changing minds of the public rather than scholars alone -Use scientific method to analyze society -belief in progress based on science Voltaire (1694-1778) -criticism of organized religion superstition/ intolerance/ dogmatism -Political & Religious freedoms as the basis of stable society “If there were just one religion in England, despotism would threaten. If there were two religions, they would cut each other’s throats, but there are 30 religions and they live peacefully and happily” -Voltaire -Deism: belief in an abstract & remote Deity rather than a person God who intervened in history or cultural law -Ideal political model in China: enlightened despot; Confucianism as secular, moral, rational, & tolerant Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) -The Spirit of Laws (1748) *Three basic kinds of government: Republics, Monarchy and Despotism -Separation of powers (checks & balances) Impacts of the Enlightenment -Connections: product of & precursor to revolution: -Rooted in the 17 thc. Scientific Revolution -Influence 18 c. American & French Revolutions (Challenged political & religious authorities)
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