History Civilizations II: The World Before 1500 Notes
History Civilizations II: The World Before 1500 Notes Hist 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elshadai Smith-Mensah on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 102 at University of Louisville taught by John Mcleod in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see History Civilizations II in History at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
The World Before 1500 8/26/2015 1 civilizations emerged in 4 different parts of the world, and all shared common features 1. Mesopotamia and 2. Egypt Both were built around rivers systems Reading, writing, political structures Declines but replaced with Assyrians (Middle East)and Persians Persian empire fosters peace, economic growth, and happy citizens Religion of the area- Judaism 3. Indian Sub-continent Emerges in Pakistan, dominated by the Harappans Also around the time of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians Harappans decline and is replaced with Indian Society Religions- Hinduism and Buddhism, which spreads to South East Asia 4. China Late to join old civilizations. Starts around 1600 BC Under control of emperors from certain families – dynasties Starts with the Shang Dynasty. Greatest dynasty is Han because the country flourishes. Another great area to evolve was Europe, though later than the first 4. Greeks dominated the area, and later molds European History. Unlike rest of world, Greeks rule smaller areas through political units. Western Civilization can refer back to the Greeks through philosophy, art, rational inquiry, etc. Alexander the Great takes over everything, spreading Greek culture. Romans take over Greek area. By 1AD Romans rule everything – Roman Empire Religion- Christianity. 1 These first few civilizations (Old World Civ.) had contact between each other, however the old world had no contact with the New World (Americas, Australia, etc.) New World Civ. Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas Spanish arrive, Aztecs and Incas are captured by 1500. Byzantine Empire Greek, S.E. Europe, Middle East, and N. Africa Early 600’s, Saudi Arabia has a growth in Islam Byz. Empire captured by Arabs, and the area becomes Islamic. India is conquered by Turkish Muslims. Religions of India are now Hindu and Muslim. Africa Starts with Egypt, but continues to grow. Empire of Songhai controls Africa. Religion- Islamic Trade flourishes. Europe after Roman Empire Collapses during 5 century. This creates Dark Ages. Dominated by Germanic Tribes. Referred to as Barbarians due to the difference of language and the idea of being uncultured. Tribes turn into kingdoms which later becomes countries. Angles start England while Francs start France. The area gradually adopts Christianity. Area is influenced by Christianity, Germanic tribes, AND Roman Empire. Leader is Charlemagne (Frank), who crowns himself a roman emperor through the Christian faith. Creates the Holy Roman Emperor (Roman empire heirs who are also Christian) Over time, areas form countries led by kings and queens. Most Kings and queens share power with nobles, by dividing land. Nobles ignore king, and a power struggle is formed. Back to China China is ahead of most areas, especially Europe, due to strong dynasty and flourishing economy China starts having problems because: 1. Heavily dependent on farming rather than trade like Europe 2. Heavy government rules from the dynasty 3. Focused on ownership of land, less dynamic than other areas. 4. Business is not important like Europe. 2 Portugal creating the link Portugal valued business/trade and traveled for business opportunities. Begins to trade with Africa, especially West Africa for gold and slaves. In 1497, Portuguese sail past Africa to India, connecting everything. 3